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Japan's R&D expenditure increased for the first time in four years
The SBJ's 2012 Survey of Research and Development showed that Japan's total expenditure on R&D during fiscal year 2011 increased for the first time in four years.
The results of the survey were released on December 14th, 2012. Surveys have been conducted annually since 1953, to obtain basic data for promoting science and technology in Japan. The survey studies the annual R&D activities of business enterprises, non-profit institutions and public organizations, as well as universities and colleges.
The survey results are used for estimates of national accounts statistics and analyses for Science and Technology policies of the government, and they are often reported in various papers such as government White Papers.
Japan's total expenditure on R&D during fiscal 2011 stood at 17.38 trillion yen, an increase of 270 billion yen (1.6%) from the previous fiscal year. This means the expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP reached 3.67%, up by 0.11 percentage points from the previous fiscal year.
Changes in R&D Expenditure
When broken down by sector, business enterprises spent 12.27 trillion yen, universities and colleges 3.54 trillion yen, and non-profit institutions and public organizations 1.57 trillion yen.
Compared with the previous fiscal year, expenditure by universities and colleges, business enterprises increased by 100 billion yen (3.1%) and 260 billion yen (2.2%) respectively, while that by non-profit institutions and public organizations decreased by 100 billion yen (6.0%).
Broken down by the source of funds, the non-government sector was the biggest contributor with 14.07 trillion. The central and local government sector supplied a further 3.23 trillion yen.
Compared with the previous fiscal year, non-government sector spending increased by 340 billion yen (2.4%), while central and local government sector R&D spending decreased by 70 billion yen (2.3%).
As of March 31, 2012, the number of researchers was 844,000, an increase of 0.2% from the previous year. The number of female researchers reached a new record of 125,000, accounting for 14.0% of the total number of researchers.
With regard to the technology balance of payments of business enterprises, receipts from technology exports stood at 2.39 trillion yen. This is a decrease of 50 billion (2.1%) from the previous fiscal year. Payments for technology imports stood at 410 billion yen, a decrease of 120 billion yen (21.8%). Consequently, the trade balance amounted to 1.97 trillion yen, an increase of 60 billion yen or 3.4% from the previous fiscal year.
Technology Balance of Payments
Financial flows such as R&D expenditure are reported for the year ending on the latest settling day prior to March 31, 2012, while the total for R&D personnel is as of March 31, 2012.
(Source)2012 Survey of Research and Development (SBJ)
For further survey information, see the website below.