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Home > Information > Tokei Chosa Kekka no Katsuyo Jireishu (Examples of Uses of Statistical Survey Results) > “Tokei Chosa Kekka no Katsuyo Jireishu (Examples of Uses of Statistical Survey Results),” Population census

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“Tokei Chosa Kekka no Katsuyo Jireishu (Examples of Uses of Statistical Survey Results),” Population census

Population census

ObjectivesTo learn how Japan’s population and households stand, and to prepare basic data for a variety of administrative and other policies

CycleEvery 5 years

(1) Use based on relevant laws

  1. Act for Establishment of the Council for Finalizing the Constituencies of the House of Representatives

Revisions to constituencies (Article 3)

  • This Act requires that the Council for Finalizing the Constituencies of the House of Representatives should survey and discuss the constituencies and, if necessary, propose a revision draft to the Prime Minister. In preparing such a revision draft, the Council is mandated to use the population of each constituency as “shown in the most recent Population census published in the Official Gazette or the results of a similar nationwide population survey.”
  1. Local Autonomy Law

“Population” to use in the Local Autonomy Law

  • “Population” as used in the Local Autonomy Law is legally defined as the “population shown in the most recent Population census published in the Official Gazette or the results of a similar nationwide population survey.”

Major requirements including population

  • The requirements for a municipality to be given the status of a “City” (Article 8)
  • Number of seats at the prefectural or municipal assembly (Articles 90 and 91)
    The requirements for a city to be given the status of a “shitei toshi (designated city),” “chuukaku shi (core city),” or “tokurei shi (special city)” (Articles 252-19, 252-22, and 252-26-3)
    Others
  1. Local Allocation Tax Act

Calculation and determination of tax amounts allocated to local municipalities (Article 12)

  • In obtaining the amounts of expenses local municipalities need to finance, which provide the foundation for determining the tax amounts to be allocated (in ordinary allocation) to such municipalities, the Act mandates use of the “population,” “city population,” “town and village population,” population aged 65 years or above,” “population aged 75 years or above,” “population in the urban planning areas,” “population employed in forestry, fishery, and mining industries,” and “number of households” shown in the results of the Population census.
  1. Act on Special Measures concerning Promotion of the Independence of Depopulated Areas

Approval of the status of a depopulated area (Article 2)

  • The Act on Special Measures concerning Promotion of the Independence of Depopulated Areas requires, for a municipality be granted the status of a “depopulated area,” that the municipality’s ratio of population decline in 35 years must exceed a specified standard, among other requirements.

Population census illustration 1

  1. Political Party Public Subsidy Act

Calculation of party subsidy amount (Article 7)

  • The Act mandates use of the “population as of the baseline date (the determined population figure announced in the Official Gazette on the nearest date to the baseline available, as a result of the Population census)” in determining the sum of party subsidies to be granted to political parties.

Population census illustration

* In addition to the Act above, many other Acts and Laws require use of Population census results, such as the Local Tax Act, orders pertaining to the City Planning Act, orders pertaining to the Act for the Promotion of Industry in Rural Areas, orders pertaining to the Disaster Countermeasure Basic Act, government decrees on special subsidies for traffic safety, etc., orders pertaining to the Act for Industrial Development in Under-developed Areas, orders pertaining to the Act for the Promotion of Infrastructure Development for Revitalization of Agriculture and Forestry in Designated Rural Areas, regulations pertaining to the Local Road Transference Tax Act, and others.

(2) Use in administrative policies

  1. With respect to the issues of declining birth rate and the aging population

In preparing the Population principles to counteract the declining birth rate, as well as plans for their implementation, such as the “Plan to assist children and child-raising”

  • Population data by age groups are used to find out facts about Japanese society, of which the population is in decline.

Pension and healthcare service expenses

  • Discussions on how to finance pension payments and healthcare service expenses from future use results in the Population census, as well as future population figures estimated in the census, as part of basic data.

Analyses of effects on the social welfare system, etc., from changes in lifestyles

  • The unmarried population ratio from the census is used in these analyses.

Issues of welfare services to aged people

  • Discussions on welfare services to aged people use the aged population living alone.

Improvement of the child-raising environment

  • In evaluating the quality of daycare centers and other child-raising facilities, the pre-school population (the population aged 0 through 5 plus half of the population aged 6 years).
  1. Disaster prevention

Preparing disaster prevention plans

  • Data on population, population density and distribution (the daytime population for major urban areas), etc., are part of the basic data used.

Preparing disaster recovery plans

  • Census data were used as part of basic data for preparing a recovery plan after the Chuetsu-oki Earthquake of Niigata Prefecture.

Damage estimates

  • Estimates of refugee population use data for relevant districts and streets.
  • Used as part of basic data in preparing a disaster prevention map in the event of a volcanic eruption
  • Used as part of basic data in estimating damage due to a flood

Development of a damage estimating system

  • The Fire and Disaster Management Agency’s “Simplified Earthquake Damage Estimation System,” which predicts damage to buildings, to people, and from fires, uses census data on total population, total number of households, and general households living in each type of house.
  1. Preparation of administrative plans

National land development

  • Census data are utilized as part of basic data in preparing “National Spatial Plans,” which set the direction for long-term national land development, as well as by the National Land Development Council, which discusses issues related to how national land development should be.
  • Census results on population, aggregate data for each small district, etc., are used as part of basic data, in preparing development plans for the nation, Prefectures, and municipalities in compliance with the National Land Use Planning Act.

* Population census results are also utilized in policy-making in many other fields as well, such as labor, industry, housing, the environment, etc.

Population census illustration 4

(3) Use in national economic calculations

National economy accounting, which obtains the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP), uses number of households, numbers of employees in respective industries, and other data from the Population census.
More specifically, the number of people engaged and those employed in each type of economic activity in the accounting are estimates based on the numbers of people employed in various industries, and the corresponding employment status from the Population census. In addition, the Employment Matrix (table of numbers of employees in various types of productive activities and occupations), prepared as an appendix to the Inter-Industry Relations Table, is based on the numbers of people employed by industry and occupation from the Population census results. The Matrix is often utilized in, among other things, simulations of effects from job creation projects.

(4) Use for analyses in recent white books

Ministries and Agencies publish white books which describe administrative problems and solutions to them. These white books are indispensable in knowing how our nation and society stand today. Also, for learning how the society is today, data on “population” from the Population census results are very frequently used. For instance, the “Annual Report on Economy and Public Finance” (White Book on Economy and Public Finance) for 2008, the “Analysis of Labor Economy” (Labor Economy White Book) for 2009, and other white books utilize results from the Population census. Also, the “White Book on Japanese Society with Declining Child Population” for 2009 analyzes the current situation with the declining child population using results from the census.

(5) Use by municipalities

  1. Preparation of administrative plans

Long-term planning by municipalities

  • Many municipalities use, as part of basic data, data from the Population census such as population by sex, age, industry, labour force,, and so on, as they prepare long-term general plans, long-term visions, and community building plans.

Population census illustration 4

  1. Countermeasures to the aging population with fewer children, healthcare and welfare services

Countermeasures by prefectures to the aging population and the declining child population

  • As prefectural governments prepare their plans to counteract the declining child population (plans to assist child-raising), plans for the sound upbringing of youth and promotion of measures for aged people, plans to improve houses for aged people, and so on, they use, as part of basic data, Population census data by sex, age, and marital status (population and ratio of aged people, unmarried women, etc.), as well as the sizes of households, numbers of households of respective types (nuclear families, three-generation households, and so on).

Healthcare and welfare

  • The Population census provides basic data, such as population by age, employment situation, types of households, types of families in households, number of households where parents and their child/children are living together/not together, etc., to prefectural governments, as they prepare healthcare and welfare plans, health-making policies, plans for healthcare and welfare services for aged people, aid plans to nursing care insurance businesses, and so on.
  1. Promotion of industries and local communities, and employment measures

Measures for depopulated areas

  • Population census data on municipal populations by age, industry, numbers of households, etc.. are essential in designating local communities as depopulated or mountainous areas, and making plans to revitalize depopulated and mountainous areas, mountain villages, and isolated islands.

Industry promotion

  • Municipalities use census data on labour force situation by industry and occupation, etc., as they make plans to promote industries in general as well as particular industries, such as agriculture, fishery, forestry and timber, livestock farming, small retailers, tourism, and wholesale market improvement, or make presentations to invite businesses to operate in them.

Employment measures

  • Prefectural governments consult Population census results for basic data on employment situations, and population broken down by industry, occupation and by employment status, among other data, as they consider plans to develop occupational abilities, plans to assist job hunting, aids to employment, and so on.
  1. Disaster prevention

Local disaster prevention plans

  • Data on regional population, numbers of households, etc., from the census are used in preparing disaster prevention plans, such as local disaster prevention plans, plans to store emergency aid materials, sediment disaster prevention, measures to prevent landslides of steep slopes, snow handling, river safety measures, and so on.

Disaster damage estimation

  • Municipalities where major earthquakes are expected consult basic data on population, numbers of households, etc., from the census, as they estimate the possible damage caused by such earthquakes.
  1. Living in general

Housing plans by municipalities

  • Municipalities use basic data from the census, such as existing types of houses, ownerships of houses, floor areas of houses, and number of households living in each type of house, etc., as they prepare basic housing plans, master housing plans, plans to build and improve publicly-run houses, and so on.

Urban and traffic issues

  • The census provides basic data on the population and number of households within a district covered by an urban development plan, as well as their changes, to be used in urban planning.
  • Municipalities use basic data from the census on where their residents are working or go to school, the population at different places of work, school, and living, how many people use which means of transportation, etc., as they prepare local urban traffic plans, visions of traffic systems used by residents, road maintenance and improvement plans, and port plans, consider uses of airports, predict the demand for existing railroads after a bullet train line is introduced, and so on.

Others

  • The census is also used as prefectural governments prepare gender equality plans or consider mergers of municipalities.
  • The census also provides data necessary to obtain “per population group” indices, such as the number of hospitals per 100,000 residents.

(6) Use in academic research

Estimate of future populations and number of households

  • The National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, part of the Ministry of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, estimates Japan’s future populations and number of households, based on the Population census results. The types of data used in the population estimation include, among others, the population by sex and age. The estimates of numbers of households use the numbers of ordinary households headed by a male and by a female, in each age group (5 years each), in each type of family, and so on.

Preparation of mortality tables

  • Preparation of an average mortality table uses data from the census on the population by age.

(7) Use in other statistical publications

Framework of enumeration districts of sampling surveys

  • The Population census provides the framework of enumeration districts for statistical surveys conducted by many governmental Offices and Ministries, including the labour and family economy surveys by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, the Cabinet Office’s Consumption Trend Survey, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare’s National Livelihood Survey, and many others.

Sample design

  • In determining the subjects of a sampling survey, they consult the Population census results to design the samples.

Benchmarks (indices) used in estimates made with other statistic data

  • The census provides benchmarks (indices) to estimates of results of sampling surveys.

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