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Home > Information > About the Organization > A Guide to the Statistics Bureau, the Director-General for Policy Planning (Statistical Standards) and the Statistical Research and Training Institute >Chapter III

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Chapter III Production of Fundamental Statistics

1. Statistics on population, housing, and land

  The Bureau is the main supplier of statistical data pertaining to Japan’s population and housing. It is responsible for conducting both the Population Census of Japan and the Housing and Land Survey once every five years. It is also responsible for compiling internal migration statistics and current population estimates.


                  Name

     Cycle

Conducted since

                            Size

Population Census (F)

Quinquennial

1920

128 million persons (2010)

Current Population Estimates (P)

Monthly

1950

-

Internal Migration Statistics (S)

Monthly

1954

-

Housing and Land Survey (F)

Quinquennial

1948

3.5 million dwellings (2013)

  (F):Fundamental Statistical Surveys; (P):Processed statistics; (S):Statistics derived from administrative records



(1) Population Census

Purpose

  The purpose of the Population Census is to investigate the domestic situation of the population and the number of households it comprises in order to obtain basic data for the development and implementation of important policies and measures.


Short history

  The Population Census of Japan has been conducted every five years since 1920, with the exception of 1945, when the census could not be taken due to World War II. However, special population censuses were taken during the 1940s to fill this gap. The next Population Census will be the 20th census, taken in October 2015.

  When the first census was taken, the Law Concerning the Population Census stipulated that the census be taken every ten years. However, the law was amended in 1922 to stipulate that the census be conducted every five years, alternating between large-scale and simplified censuses. For example, the 1925 and 1935 censuses were simplified, while the 1930 and 1940 censuses were large scale.

  The scheduled 1945 census could not be carried out because of the widespread upheaval at the end of World War II. Instead, the Bureau conducted the Extraordinary Population Census in 1947, in accordance with the provisions of the former Statistics Act. This act initially stipulated that the census be conducted every five years. However, after the 1950 census, the act was amended in 1954 to require a large-scale census every ten years, and a simplified one in the fifth year following such a census.

  The main difference between large-scale and simplified censuses lies in the number of questions. In recent large-scale censuses, for instance, each household enumerated was required to answer 20 questions, while in recent simplified censuses, the households needed to answer only 17 questions.


Census date

  The 2015 census will be taken as of midnight on October 1, 2015. This census date has remained unchanged since 1920 for all regular censuses.


Coverage

   The Population Census of Japan covers the entire territory of Japan. However, as the territory under Japanese control has changed after World War II, the area covered by subsequent censuses has changed accordingly. However, the census coverage has remained unchanged since the 1975 census, conducted after Okinawa returned to Japanese administration in 1972.

  The 2015 census will cover the entire territory of Japan, except the following islands:

  • Habomai-gunto, Shikotan-to, Kunashiri-to, and Etorofu-to
  • Take-shima in Okinoshima-cho, Oki-gun, Shimane-ken

  The persons enumerated are those who are usually residing in the territory of Japan at the time of each census. These persons are counted at their places of usual residence. They comprise the de jure population of Japan. The following persons, however, are excluded from the census:

  • Members of the foreign diplomatic corps, their suite, and dependents
  • Foreign military personnel including both military corps and supporting civilians, and their dependents

  Generally, the words “persons usually residing in Japan” are interpreted, in the census, as those persons who have lived or are going to live in their respective households for three months or more, as of the census date. Persons who have no usual place of residence, or whose usual place of residence is unknown, are counted at the places where they are located at the time of the census. This definition has remained unchanged since the 1950 census.


Census organization

  The 2015 census will be conducted through the following channels:

Image of census organization


Survey method

  The Bureau is in charge of planning and executing the census, which includes arranging materials and documents, instructing local statistical governments on its field activities carried out by them, and publishing the results.

  The statistics divisions of the prefectural governments are responsible for conducting census operations in each prefecture. These statistics divisions perform the census work, which consists of distributing census documents to municipal governments, supporting the fieldwork of municipalities, collecting census documents from municipalities, and so forth, at the prefectural level.

  The respective shi (city), ku (ward), machi (town), and mura (village) offices perform tasks such as establishing the enumeration districts, selecting and training supervisors and enumerators, distributing census documents to supervisors and enumerators, and collecting these documents.

  The fieldwork of the 2015 census will be carried out by enumerators who will be specially appointed for the census. Supervisors will be also appointed for training and supervising the enumerators, examining entries in census questionnaires, and other tasks. These enumerators and supervisors will be appointed by the Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications.

  In the 2015 Census, based on the advancement of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the Bureau will review the process of the census taking and introduce the first-ever nationwide online census through PCs and smartphones in light of accurate and efficient enumeration, reduction of respondent burden and improvement of respondent/user convenience.

  In order to promote online response, the 2015 Census will be conducted by the method in which the online response period is set prior to the period for paper questionnaire submission (by handing over or postal mail). By distributing questionnaires only to households that have not responded online, rational and efficient enumeration of census will be carried out.

  In this way, the households will be able to select the following response-methods in the 2015 Census:

  • Keying in answers in the online survey system.
  • Handing over questionnaires enclosed in envelopes to enumerators. These envelopes can be sealed as the respondent chooses.
  • Putting the questionnaires in pre-addressed envelopes and mailing them to the Bureau (dropping them into post boxes).

  The purpose of introducing these methods is to address the change of conditions such as the increase of households in which members are absent from home in the daytime, and their privacy concerns.


  [Basic Unit Blocks (BUBs)]


  The 1990 census first adopted the concept of “Basic Unit Blocks” (BUBs) to establish permanent geographical units. For localities where the address designation was conducted based on the gaiku areas, determined by the Law Concerning the Address Designation of Residences, one gaiku normally constituted one BUB. A gaiku is a small area that has been permanently established by further dividing a subdivision (called cho or aza) within a municipal district by roads, railways, rivers, etc. For the remaining areas, the municipal governments demarcated BUBs based on small areas similarly delineated by clear and permanent geographical characteristics and landmarks. Generally, one BUB comprises around 20-30 households.

  As the method used to establish the BUBs suggests, they are intrinsically permanent. However, for the 2015 census, some of the BUBs established in the 2010 census have been inevitably altered because of boundary changes between municipalities, address designation changes, and other reasons.

  The BUBs are the units for compiling and providing statistics for small areas. However, the statistical tables for the BUBs only contain basic data items such as population by sex and total number of households, as the BUBs are too small for cross-classified tabulation. Tables with more details are compiled for cho or aza (subdivisions within municipalities).


  [Enumeration Districts (EDs)]


  Before each census, the entire area of Japan is divided into “enumeration districts” (EDs), which are then accurately mapped.

  The EDs for the 2015 census were demarcated on October 1, 2014, a year before the census date; each ED was normally a combination of two or more BUBs and contained around 50 households. In cases where a BUB consisted of many households, it was counted as one ED or was further divided into two or more EDs. The EDs were subsequently partially amended up to the census date to incorporate changes after demarcation. Thus, the EDs were finally demarcated as of the census date.


Survey items

  The following questions will be asked in the 2015 census (17 questions):

(a) For household members

  • Name
  • Sex
  • Year and month of birth
  • Relationship to head of the household
  • Marital status
  • Nationality
  • Duration of residency at the current domicile
  • Place of residence five years ago
  • Type of activity
  • Name of establishment and type of business (industry)
  • Kind of work (occupation)
  • Employment status
  • Place of work or location of school

(b) For households

  • Type of household
  • Number of household members
  • Type and tenure of dwelling
  • Type of building and number of stories

Post-census surveys

  After every census since 1950, the Bureau has conducted post-census surveys to evaluate the actual coverage of the census and the reliability of the data obtained. The results of these post-census surveys are used to check the accuracy of the census results and to plan future population censuses.

  The 2015 post-census survey will be conducted in November 2015.


Data processing

  The Bureau will entrust the data processing of the 2015 census to the National Statistics Center. After being accepted and sorted, the census questionnaires are read using Optical Character Readers (OCRs) and coded by category (industry, occupation, etc.). Subsequently, the data that has been completely checked are compiled and tabulated.

  The major results of the 2015 census will be tabulated as follows:

  • Preliminary counts of the population and households
    (Results compiled from the household listing sheets prepared by the municipalities)
  • Preliminary sample tabulation
    (Results compiled from 1% of the questionnaires sampled at random)
  • Basic complete tabulation on population and households
    (Results covering the basic characteristics of population and households in the complete count)
  • Basic complete tabulation on labour force (industries and occupations)
    (Results related to labour force status, industries and occupations in the complete count)
  • Basic complete tabulation on households and families
    (Results related to the household structure and family type in the complete count)
  • Detailed sample tabulation
    (Detailed results related to industries and occupations by sample tabulation)
  • Tabulation on Place of Work or Schooling
    (Results related to the daily commuting movements of workers and students)
  • Tabulation on Internal Migration
    (Results related to the number, direction, and characteristics of those who changed their usual place of residence)

Publication

  The major results of the 2015 census will be released as follows:

  • Preliminary counts of the population and households ···········································February 2016
  • Preliminary sample tabulation ·············································································· June 2016
  • Basic complete tabulation on population and households ······································ October 2016
  • Basic complete tabulation on industries ·································································· April 2017
  • Basic complete tabulation on occupations ······················································ September 2017
  • Detailed sample tabulation ··········································································· December 2017
  • Tabulation on Place of Work or Schooling ········································ June 2017-December 2017
  • Tabulation on Internal Migration ························································· January 2017-July 2017

  In addition to the above tabulations, the Tabulations for Small Areas will be released in series by the respective small areas such as BUBs and EDs and on a grid-square basis.

  They will be released on the Internet.


Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To enumerate the legal population to determine the amount of local allocation tax, lower house electoral districts, and number of Diet seats
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures such as employment policies, social welfare plans, community organization plans, and disaster prevention measures
  3. (c) To obtain basic data for population analysis and academic research required for administration, such as estimates of future population and number of households
  4. (d) To provide a sampling framework for various sample surveys of households and individuals

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/kokusei/index.htm


(2) Current Population Estimates

Purpose

  To provide major population figures for the most recent reference date during the inter-census period, the Bureau compiles two sets of Current Population Estimates: monthly nationwide estimates and annual prefectural estimates. Both sets of estimates are based on the census population and are extrapolated from vital statistics and migration statistics.


Short history

  The annual estimates have been calculated since 1921, the year after the first Population Census, while the monthly estimates have been compiled since the month following the 1950 Population Census.


Reference date

  The reference date of the monthly estimates is the first day of each month and that of the annual estimates is October 1.


Coverage

  The population estimates cover the entire population, including foreigners who usually reside in Japan. However, the estimates exclude some foreigners such as foreign diplomatic and consular corps, including their party or family members, and foreign military personnel and their family members.


Method of computation

  The monthly estimates involve computing the population of the entire country by sex and five-year age groups. The estimates are computed by adding the number of births and the number of persons entering Japan to the census population and subtracting the number of deaths and the number of persons leaving Japan.

  The annual estimates are computed for the prefectural populations by sex and five-year age groups and for the nationwide population, by sex and age in years. These estimates are computed based on internal migration statistics in addition to the statistics used to compute the monthly estimates. However, annual estimates are not published in the Population Census years.

  The estimates are revised retroactively when the results of the more recent census become available. The annual population estimates of the inter-census periods are available for every year since 1921, the year after the first Population Census.


Publication

  The annual estimates published include the “population by age (single year) and sex for Japan” and the “population by age (five-year age group) and sex for prefectures” as of October 1, in April.


Use of the survey results (major examples)

  The estimates are used in various white papers and as basic data for demographic and economic analyses in national, regional, and international organizations.


Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/jinsui/index.htm


(3) Internal Migration Statistics

Purpose

  Internal Migration Statistics are important sources of information for assessing the mobility of the population based on the records of the Basic Resident Registration, and the head of each municipality (shi, ku (of the 23 wards that make up Tokyo), machi, and mura) is responsible for preparing these registrations in accordance with the Basic Resident Registration Act.


Short history

  This report was initially called the “Report on Internal Migration in Japan Derived from the Resident Registers.” However, when the Resident Registration Law (Act no. 218 of 1951) was revised as the Basic Resident Registration Act (Act no. 81 of 1967), this report was also renamed the “Report on Internal Migration in Japan Derived from the Basic Resident Registration.”


Coverage

  These statistics cover the migration of people across the borders of municipalities, i.e., shi, ku, machi, and mura.


Method of computation

  This report is compiled from the following data, which are reported to each municipality and provided to the Statistics Bureau, based on Article 37 of the Basic Resident Registration Act:

  1. (a) Address (municipality code), sex, age (the birth data), and information on changes (reason and date of in-migration) of the in-migrants who reported their in-migration to the head of each municipality in accordance with Article 22 of the Act.
  2. (b) Address (municipality code), sex, age (the birth data), and information on changes (reason and date of in-migration) of the in-migrants registered ex officio in the Resident Record by the authority in accordance with Article 8 of the Act.

Data processing

  The Bureau processes and compiles the data given by prefectural governments in statistical tables; the Bureau also tabulates records for prefectures and 21 major cities by origin and destination of migration.


Publication

  The Bureau releases the results in the “Monthly Report,” which contains monthly internal migration statistics, by the end of the following month and in the “Annual Report,” which contains annual internal migration statistics, in the months of January and April.


Use of the survey results (major examples)

  The survey results are used to provide basic data for generating the current population estimates and the population projection of future regional populations.


Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/idou/index.htm


(4) Housing and Land Survey

Purpose

  The Housing and Land Survey is the most fundamental statistical survey pertaining to housing conditions. Its purpose is to obtain basic data for various housing and land policy measures by investigating the actual situation of dwellings and other buildings, and the households occupying them, in order to clarify the present circumstances and trends for the entire country, including major metropolitan areas and prefectures.


Short history

  The Housing and Land Survey is the most comprehensive, large-scale sample survey of housing conditions and land ownership in Japan.

  The survey has been conducted every five years since 1948 as the Housing Survey; it was expanded and renamed the “Housing and Land Survey” in 1998. The latest survey, which was conducted in October 2013, was the 14th survey.


Survey date

  The survey date of the 2013 Housing and Land Survey was October 1, 2013.


Coverage

  The survey units consisted of dwellings, other occupied buildings, and all households inhabiting these dwellings and buildings located in the enumeration districts (EDs) at the time of the survey date. However, the survey excluded the following facilities and households residing therein:

  1. (a) Facilities under the management of diplomatic establishments and other authorized foreign or international agencies; dwellings of foreign envoys, consular officials, and their dependents (including families)
  2. (b) Facilities that are deemed to be imperial property under the management of the Imperial Household Agency
  3. (c) Jails, prisons, reformatories, detention homes, women’s shelters, and illegal immigrant detention centers
  4. (d) Camps and other facilities of the Self-Defense Forces
  5. (e) Camps and other facilities used by the U.S. Army

  The survey covers the entire territory of Japan except for the following islands:

  • Habomai-gunto, Shikotan-to, Kunashiri-to, and Etorofu-to
  • Take-shima in Okinoshima-cho, Oki-gun, Shimane-ken

Sampling

  A two-stage stratified sampling method was used in the 2013 survey. The first-stage sampling unit was an ED utilized in the 2010 Population Census, and the second-stage sampling unit was a dwelling unit located in an enumeration unit district, which was formed from the sample ED.

  As a national average, approximately one-fifth of the EDs taken from the 2010 Population Census were sampled in the first stage (approximately 210,000 EDs were selected from approximately 1,000,000 EDs).

  The districts listed below were excluded from sampling, as they had been designated as evacuation areas due to the effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. These districts are thus not included in the results of the Survey.

  • The entire area of the following districts are excluded:
    Naraha-machi, Tomioka-machi, Ookuma-machi, Futaba-machi, Namie-machi,
    Katsurao village, Iitate village
  • Some part of the following districts are excluded:
    Tamura City, Minamisoma City, Kawamata-machi, Hirono-machi, Kawauchi village

Survey organization

  The Bureau planned and administered the 2013 survey through the following channels:

Image of survey organization

  Approximately 82,000 enumerators conducted the survey, while approximately 15,000 supervisors provided guidance to the enumerators and inspected their documents. In addition, the Bureau set up a call center so that inquiries from households could be promptly answered.


Survey method

  1. (a) The enumerators checked all the dwellings and other occupied buildings within their assigned enumeration unit districts for the 2013 survey. Based on this, they drafted a list of households in the survey and a map of their enumeration unit districts, and delivered a questionnaire to each selected household during September 23-30, 2013. From October 1 to 24, the enumerators revisited all the selected households in their districts to collect the completed questionnaires and check the entries. In addition, households in the EDs designated by the Bureau could fill in the questionnaires by using an electronic information processing system with telecommunication lines connecting their own computers to those of the Bureau.
  2. (b) One questionnaire, either A or B, was distributed in each enumeration unit district. Questionnaires A and B were allocated at random to individual enumeration unit districts in the national average ratio of 6:1.
  3. (c) The questionnaires were completed by the head (or representative) of the household, while some parts were filled in by the enumerator during the interview with that person. For vacant dwellings, the enumerators completed their section of the questionnaires (except for information related to the “type of household”) based on their scrutiny of the exterior of the dwellings. In the case of households whose members were absent for some reason and thus unable to complete the questionnaire, the enumerators spoke with the household’s neighbors and completed some parts of the questionnaire, such as the name of the head or representative of the household, number of household members, type of household, number of stories in the building, construction material, type of building, type of dwelling, width of road abutting the site, site area, and building area.

Survey items

  Questionnaires A and B that were distributed to households, and Building Survey Sheets filled out by the enumerators were used to investigate the following topics in the 2013 Housing and Land Survey dated October 1, 2013:

(1) Survey items in all unit districts in common

  (a) Buildings

  • Number and area of dwelling rooms (in units of number of tatami mats)
  • Tenure of dwelling
  • Site area
  • Tenure of site

  (b) Dwellings

  • Construction materials
  • Situation of dilapidation
  • Stories of building
  • Type of building
  • Type of dwelling
  • Total number of dwellings in the building
  • Situation of house/ground rent
  • Year of construction
  • Area of floor space
  • Building area
  • Situation of facilities
  • Situation of enlargement or remodeling, or refurbishing work
    (Including repair work related to the Great East Japan Earthquake)
  • Type of dwelling without any occupants

  (c) Households

  • Name of head or representative of household
  • Type of household
  • Number of household members
  • Annual income of household

  (d) Main earner or head of household

  • Employment status
  • Commuting time
  • Situation of moving due to the Great East Japan Earthquake
  • Year of last relocation
  • Previous residence
  • Situation of children

  (e) Dwelling environment

(2) Survey items in Questionnaire B

  (a) Housing and land other than present residence

  • Tenure of housing and land
  • Location
  • Area
  • Use

Data processing

  The Bureau entrusts the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center.


Publication

  The Interim Reports were released in July 2014 and the Final Results are to be released by March 2015.


Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain basic data for regulation of tax on housing and land
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures, such as dwelling life policies, land use plans, and development plans
  3. (c) To obtain basic data for academic research, such as research on housing market mechanisms, and a city plan focusing on earthquake resistance or disaster prevention

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/jyutaku/index.htm

2. Labour statistics

  There are three major sources of labour statistics: sample household surveys, sample establishment surveys, and administrative records. In terms of coverage, sample household surveys, which cover the entire population, are generally the most comprehensive data sources, while sample establishment surveys and administrative records cover only those who are employed by establishments or registered at administrative offices. On the other hand, the latter two sources are useful for obtaining various data that are needed for specific policy purposes, such as labour administration.

  The Bureau conducts sample household surveys on labour, while the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare conducts sample establishment surveys and compiles administrative records.


                    Name

     Cycle

Conducted since

Size

Labour Force Survey (F)

 

Monthly

 

1947

 

      40,000 households

      (100,000 persons aged 15 years and above)

Employment Status Survey (F)

 

Quinquennial*

 

1956

 

      470,000 households

      (1.0 million persons aged 15 years and above) (2012)

  (F):Fundamental Statistical Surveys; *Conducted every three years until 1982 and every five years after 1982



(1) Labour Force Survey

Purpose

  The purpose of the Labour Force Survey is to provide current data on the employment status of the population and monthly changes in employment levels.


Short history

  The survey has been conducted every month since July 1947, following a test period of 10 months from September 1946 to June 1947. In 2002, the Special Survey of the Labour Force Survey, which had been conducted twice a year, was integrated into the Labour Force Survey.

  The survey provides monthly basic figures on employment and unemployment, such as the number of employed persons by industry and occupation and the number of unemployed persons, mostly at the national level.


Reference date and period

  The reference date for the survey is the last day of each month, except the month of December, for which the reference date is December 26. The questions in the labour force status refer to the reference period of one week, which ends on the reference date.


Coverage

  The survey covers all persons aged 15 years and above who mainly reside in Japan, except members of the foreign diplomatic corps, their suite and dependents, and foreign military personnel and their dependents.


Sampling

  The sample is selected using a two-stage stratified sampling method, the primary sampling units being the enumeration districts (EDs) of the Population Census and the secondary sampling units being the dwelling units. All persons aged 15 years and above who mainly live in the sample dwelling units are required to respond to the survey. The overall sampling ratio is around 1:1,000.

  In the initial stage of sampling, all EDs are stratified, mainly according to their industrial characteristics at the time of the latest available Population Census. From among some 1,000,000 EDs, around 2,900 EDs are selected through the stratified sampling.

  In the second stage of sampling, before conducting the survey, the enumerator prepares a complete list of dwelling units for each sampled ED (containing an average of 50 households). Approximately 15 dwelling units are systematically selected from this list.

  The sampled dwelling units comprise around 40,000 households in total. This sample size has remained the same since 1983, although there have been some changes in the past. Approximately 100,000 persons are included in the sample every month.

  The secondary sampling units are dwelling units, not households, because the list of dwelling units provides a more stable sampling frame than that of households. In the event that the household residing in a sampled dwelling unit moves out after the list has been prepared but before the survey date, the enumerator need only visit the new occupant of the same dwelling unit rather than having to trace the whereabouts of the household that has moved out.

  To enhance reliability, when measuring changes in the current month as compared to those in the previous month and in the same month of the previous year, the sample is renewed regularly under a rotation system.

  Under this system, around half of the sampled dwelling units remain in the sample for two consecutive months. For comparison with the same month of the previous year, around half of the sampled dwelling units remain the same. There are always households that change addresses, but there is an overlap of slightly less than half of the sampled households between two adjacent months of the same year and between two months separated by one year.

  To achieve this rotation, the entire sample is divided into eight independent sub-samples, each with its own timing for rotation, spread evenly throughout the year. Once an ED is included in the sample, it remains there for four consecutive months and then leaves the sample for eight months. Subsequently, the same ED is included in the sample again for four months before finally being removed from the sample. During the four months when an ED is in the sample, two sets of dwelling units are selected: one is enumerated in the first two months, and the other, in the next two months. During the first and second years when an ED is included in the sample, the same sets of dwelling units are enumerated to maximize the overlap of the sample for comparison over the years.

  As a result of adopting this system, a sampled household is usually enumerated in two consecutive months; it is then excluded from the sample for ten months. Subsequently, it is enumerated again for two months.

  The list of dwelling units in the ED is reviewed every month so that changes can be incorporated. As a result, some sampled dwelling units might disappear or new dwelling units may be included in the sample. In such cases, the percentage of overlap in the sample between the two months might be affected.


Survey organization

  The survey is conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization

  Supervisors are selected from the staff of the prefectural governments and are responsible for training and supervising the enumerators.


Survey method

  The enumerator prepares a list of all the dwelling units in the ED assigned to him or her. The supervisor selects the sample of dwelling units from the list according to the method followed by the Bureau. Thereafter, the households in these selected dwelling units are surveyed.

  Two types of questionnaires are used in the survey: a basic questionnaire and a special questionnaire. Surveys are conducted using the basic questionnaire in the same two months in two successive years and using the special questionnaire only in the second month of the second year.

  Within seven days before the survey week, the enumerator visits all the households in the sample dwelling units and requests them to fill in the questionnaires. Within three days after the survey week, the enumerator revisits the households and collects the questionnaires after checking the entries on the spot. The collected questionnaires are then submitted to the prefectural office, checked by the supervisors, and sent to the Bureau.


Survey items

(a) Basic questionnaire

  Every month, the respondents are asked to report the following items:

  • Name and sex
  • Relationship to the head of the household
  • Year and month of birth
  • Marital status
  • Labour force status in the full week preceding the reference date (i.e., whether employed, unemployed, or not in the labour force)
  • Whether seeking a job as a primary activity or as a secondary activity (for unemployed persons)
  • Reason for seeking a job
  • Weekly hours worked
  • Weekly days worked
  • Monthly days worked
  • Status in employment
  • Name, organization, and business/industry of employer or self-employed enterprise
  • Occupation
  • Total number of employees in the enterprise

(b) Special questionnaire

  In the second month of the second year, the respondents are asked to report the following items:

  [For employed persons]

  • Reason for working fewer than 35 hours a week
  • Desire to change number of working hours
  • Date of commencement of present job
  • Type of employment
  • Desire to change jobs or have an additional job
  • Whether previously employed in other jobs

  [For unemployed persons]

  • Methods used to seek a job
  • Duration of job search
  • Whether seeking a job within a month
  • Type of job desired
  • Reason for not getting a job
  • Whether previously employed

  [For persons not in the labour force]

  • Whether desire to work or not
  • Reason for not seeking a job
  • Type of job desired
  • Whether sought a job within a year
  • When able to take a job
  • Whether previously employed

  [Regarding the previous job]

  • Date of leaving employment
  • Type of employment
  • Industry
  • Occupation
  • Total number of employees in the enterprise
  • Reason for leaving employment

  [For persons aged 15 years and above]

  • Education
  • Total annual income

Data processing

  The Bureau entrusts the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center. The results are tabulated as statistics for the following characteristics:

  (a) Basic tabulation:

  • Labour force
  • Employed persons/employees by industry/occupation
  • Unemployed persons
  • Unemployment rate
  • Not in labour force
  • Weekly/Monthly/Annual days/hours of work

  (b) Detailed tabulation:

  • Employees by type of employment (regular staff, part-time workers, etc.)
  • Employed persons having changed jobs in the past year
  • Employed persons by earnings from job
  • Those not in the labour force who wish to work

Publication

  The monthly results obtained through the basic questionnaire, including the unemployment rates, are released at the end of the month following the survey and reported at the relevant cabinet meeting. The results compiled quarterly and annual basis are also tabulated for the 10 regions and the whole country.

  The results based on the special questionnaires are released on a quarterly basis, two months after the last month of the survey.

  The “Annual Report on the Labour Force Survey” is published in the following year.


Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain indicators of national economic and business performance
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for planning various employment-related policies
  3. (c) To obtain basic data for studies on the problems of employment and unemployment in the research and academic communities

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/roudou/index.htm


(2) Employment Status Survey

Purpose

  The Employment Status Survey aims to provide detailed data on the structure of employment and unemployment at national and regional levels.

[Comparison with the Labour Force Survey]

  The Employment Status Survey differs from the Labour Force Survey in the following respects:

  1. (a) It provides much more detailed data than the Labour Force Survey. The latter can provide only limited data because it prioritizes the rapid reporting of the most recent data.
  2. (b) It provides far more detailed breakdowns and cross-classifications in its tables than the Labour Force Survey.

  In accordance with these characteristics, the sample used in the Employment Status Survey is much larger than that used in the Labour Force Survey, with the former covering around one million people aged 15 years and above, while the latter covers around 100,000 such persons.

  The Employment Status Survey obtains data based on the usual employment status rather than the actual employment status, which is investigated in the Labour Force Survey and the Population Census. The Employment Status Survey focuses on the usual employment status because this information is more appropriate for analyses of certain aspects such as under employment or taking up secondary jobs, because surveys of the actual status of employment, which cover only a weekly period, cannot provide an accurate picture of these aspects.


Short history

  From 1956 to 1982, the survey was generally conducted every three years. After 1982, the interval was increased to five years, and the latest survey, which was conducted in 2012, was the 16th survey.


Survey date

  The survey was taken as of midnight on October 1, 2012.


Coverage

  The 2012 survey, which was conducted in the designated enumeration districts (EDs), covered household members aged 15 years and above in approximately 470,000 households living in the sampled units (buildings or parts of buildings capable of housing one household) selected by the mayors of cities and the heads of towns and villages in the manner prescribed by the Bureau.

  The following persons, however, were excluded from the enumeration:

  1. (a) Foreign diplomatic corps or consular staff (including their suite and their family members)
  2. (b) Foreign military personnel or civilians (including their family members)
  3. (c) Persons living in camps or ships of the Self-Defense Forces
  4. (d) Persons serving sentences in prisons or detention houses
  5. (e) Inmates of reformatory institutions or women’s guidance homes

Sampling

  This survey adopted a two-stage stratified sampling method where the EDs of the 2010 Population Census constituted the first-stage sampling units and dwellings constituted the second-stage sampling units.

  In the first stage, stratified random sampling was used to select census EDs from the entire country.

  In the second stage, random sampling was used to select a specific number of dwellings from among the households living in the sample districts.

  The survey enumerated all the household members aged 15 years and above living in the selected dwellings in the sample EDs.


Survey organization

  The 2012 survey was conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization

  In addition, the Bureau set up a call center so that inquiries from households could be promptly answered.


Survey method

  Enumerators delivered the questionnaires to each household to be surveyed, collected the completed questionnaires, and interviewed the household members as necessary. The questionnaires were completed by either household members aged 15 years and above or the head of the household, who also answered certain questions asked by the enumerators.

  In addition, in the EDs designated by the Bureau, households could fill in the questionnaires through an electronic information processing system with telecommunication lines connecting their own computers and those of the Bureau.


Survey items

  The Employment Status Survey mostly covered the same topics on every occasion, with some slight changes to incorporate topics of current interest. The 2012 survey covered the following topics:

(a) Items related to household members aged 15 years and above

[For all household members]

  Name, sex, marital status, relationship to the head of the household, month and year of birth, educational status e.g. school attendance, year of graduation, type of school, when you started living at present address, reason for changing address, address before changing address, type of income sources, usual labour force status, whether doing any training or self-development, type of training or self-development, whether providing childcare, whether used childcare leave or other support system, kind of childcare leave system, etc., whether providing family care, whether used family care leave or other support system, kind of family care leave system, etc., whether your own main job was affected at the time by impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake, whether evacuated, present situation of evacuation and address at the time of the earthquake

[For persons engaged in work]

  a) Main job

  Employment status, type of employment at place of work, whether started a business of your own or not, employed with or without a definite contract term and a term per contract, number of renewals of employment contract, type of legal organization at place of work, name of place of work, contents of business at place of work, contents of work, number of persons engaged in enterprise, days worked per year, regularity of work, working hours per week, income, when you took up the job, whether wishing to change the present job etc.; or to have an additional job, whether wishing to extend working hours, etc.; reason for wishing to change the present job, status of job you wished to take, whether seeking a job, wish for working hours, labour force status a year ago, and whether you had a job

  b) Second job

  Employment status and contents of business at place of work

  c) Previous job

  When left the previous job, duration engaged in work (years and months), reason for leaving the previous job, employment status, type of employment at place of work, contents of business at place of work, contents of work, relationship between present job or previous job and “first job,” timing of the opening for “first job,” and employment status and type of employment for “first job”

[For persons not engaged in work]

  a) Wish to work etc.

  Whether wishing to work, reason for wishing to work, kind of job wished to take, status of job wished to take, whether seeking a job, reason for not seeking a job, duration of seeking a job, intention to take up a job, reason for not wishing to work, labour force status a year ago, and whether had working experience

  b) Previous job

  When left the previous job, duration engaged in work (years and months), reason for leaving the previous job, employment status, type of employment at place of work, contents of business at place of work, contents of the work, relationship between present/ previous job and “first job,” timing of getting “first job,” and employment status and type of employment for “first job”

(b) Items related to households

  Number of household members less than 15 years old, annual income of household as a whole, and number of household members 15 years old or more


Data processing

  The Bureau entrusts the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center. The major tabulation points are as follows:

  • General items related to the usual labour force status
  • Items related to days worked per year and working hours per week
  • Items related to industry and the number of persons engaged in the enterprise
  • Items related to occupation, status in employment, and annual earnings
  • Items related to the labour force status of the head of the household and of the household members

Publication

  The results of the 2012 survey were published in the following four volumes:

  • Results for Japan ····························································································· March 2014
  • Results for Prefectures ······················································································ March 2014
  • Results for Ordinance-designated Cities ································································ March 2014
  • Summary Table for Region ················································································· March 2014
  • Summary Results and Analyses of the 2012 Employment Status Survey (Time series)
          ················································································································· March 2014

Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures such as employment, tax, and gender equality policies
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for calculating macroeconomic figures such as the gross domestic expenditure
  3. (c) To obtain basic data for studies on the problems of employment and unemployment at universities, research institutes, and other institutions

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/shugyou/index.htm

3. Statistics on establishments and enterprises


                      Name

          Cycle

Conducted since

                                              Size

Economic Census for Business

Frame (F)

 

    Quinquennial

 

 

2009

 

 

all establishments

 

 

Economic Census for Business

Activity (F)

 

    Quinquennial

 

 

2012

 

 

all establishments

 

 

Unincorporated Enterprise

Survey (F)

 

    Quarterly

 

 

1952

 

 

3,700 establishments

 

 

Survey of Research and

Development (F)

 

    Annual

 

 

1953

 

 

18,200 business enterprises, non-profit institutions and

public organizations, and universities and colleges

 

Monthly Survey on Service

Industries (G)

 

    Monthly

 

2008

 

39,000 establishments and enterprises, etc.

 

    Annual

2013

76,500 establishments and enterprises, etc.

 

*1Establishment and Enterprise

Census

 

    Quinquennial*2

 

 

      [1947-2006]

 

 

5,911,000 establishments(2006)

 

 

*1Survey on Service Industries

 

    Quinquennial

 

      [1989-2004]

 

430,000 establishments(2004)

  (F):Fundamental Statistical Surveys; (G):General Statistical Surveys;

  *1The Establishment and Enterprise Census and Survey on Service Industries are combined in the Economic Census

  *2This census was conducted every three years until 1981. Since the 1996 census, a simplified census has been conducted within three years of the quinquennial census.



(1) Economic Census for Business Frame

Purpose

  The objectives of the Economic Census for Business Frame are, by investigating the economic activity of establishments and enterprises, to identify the basic structure of establishments and enterprises (e.g., the number of persons engaged) in all industries on a national and regional level and to obtain basic information for conducting various statistical surveys.


Short history

  The Japanese government faced the urgent challenge of developing primary statistics that could succinctly capture the entire picture of Japan’s economic activities. Certain characteristics of Japan’s previous industrial statistics, which are mentioned below, made it difficult for the government to utilize the statistical data and imposed major limitations on the estimation of the gross domestic product (GDP).

  1. (a) Industrial statistics, in general, were provided by industries or by the relevant ministries.
  2. (b) Different surveys had different reference dates and survey cycles.
  3. (c) The concepts and definitions of the survey terms were not uniform among the different censuses and statistical surveys.

  Under these circumstances, in a policy called “Toward the Structural Reform of Official Statistics” (June 10, 2005, the Committee for Development of Economic and Social Statistics, Cabinet Office), it was determined that “a census focusing on establishments and enterprises should be implemented in 2009, and another census focusing on accounting items should also be implemented in 2011, utilizing the information of the 2009 survey.” Moreover, the “2005 Basic Policy on Economic and Fiscal Management and Structural Reform” (June 21, 2005, Cabinet Approval) referred to the need to develop statistics corresponding to the changes in industrial structure, such as the Economic Census, which succinctly captures the entire picture of economic activity in Japan.

  This led to the merging of large-scale statistical surveys such as the Establishment and Enterprise Census [1947-2006] and the decision to establish the Economic Census.


Census date

  The 2014 census was conducted as of July 1, 2014.


Coverage

  This census covers all establishments and enterprises, excluding unincorporated establishments related to agriculture, forestry, fisheries, domestic services, foreign governments, and international agencies operating in Japan.


Census organization

  The 2014 census consisted of Survey A, which covered all private establishments and enterprises, and Survey B, which covered all public establishments in both the central and local governments.

(1) Survey A (for private establishments and enterprises) was conducted through the following channels:

  1. (a) Survey by enumerators:
    Image of census organization (survey by enumerators (Survey A))
  2. (b) Survey by direct mailing:
    • Survey by the central government
      Image of census organization (survey by the central government (Survey A))
    • Survey by prefectures
      Image of census organization (survey by prefectures (Survey A))
    • Survey by municipalities
      Image of census organization (survey by municipalities (Survey A))

(2) Survey B (for public establishments) was conducted through the following channels:

Image of census organization (Survey B)


Survey methods

  The 2014 census was conducted using four different methods, i.e., surveys by enumerators, by the central government, by prefectures, and by municipalities, depending on the size of the establishment and enterprise surveyed.

  In this survey (2014), online response was newly introduced for the survey by enumerators.

Survey A (for private establishments)

1. Survey by enumerator

  Enumerators visited each establishment, distributed questionnaires, and collected the completed questionnaires.

2. Survey by central government, prefecture, or municipality

  The establishment first selected the method of response, i.e., they could choose whether to submit the survey questionnaire via the Internet or to mail it back to the concerned government authority. The central government (or prefecture or municipal authority) then distributed the questionnaires (soft or hard copies) via the Internet and collected them after they were completed.

Survey B (for public establishments)

3. In the case of municipal establishments, the municipal mayors were responsible for sending and collecting the questionnaires; in prefectural establishments, this was done by the prefectural governors, and in national establishments, this duty was performed by the Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications through other ministers.

[Enumeration districts (EDs)]

  The entire area of Japan is divided into EDs in order to clarify the area of which each enumerator is in charge, avoid duplication in the compilation of statistics, and obtain basic information for conducting various statistical surveys on establishments and enterprises.

  In the Economic Census, the EDs are demarcated by the number of enterprises in units named “cho” or “aza.” Each ED includes around 50 enterprises. However, if an ED has more than 50 enterprises, it is further subdivided.

  The EDs were established as of June 1, 2013, and after some revision, they were finally demarcated as of July 1, 2014, when the census was conducted.


Survey items

  The 2014 census was conducted using two types of questionnaires: I and II. Questionnaire I was for private establishments, while questionnaire II was for public establishments. Each questionnaire surveyed the following items:

(1) Questionnaire I (for private establishments)

  (a) Items concerning establishments

  • Name and telephone number
  • Address
  • Startup date
  • Number of employees
  • Type of business conducted
  • Form of business conducted
  • Single Unit/Head/Branch
  • Amount of Total Annual Sales (Income) of Establishment

  (b) Items concerning enterprises

  • Legal organization
  • Amount of capital
  • Ratio of foreign equity
  • Account closing month
  • Whether there is a holding company or not
  • Existence of parent company
  • Name of parent company
  • Address and telephone number of parent company
  • Existence and number of subsidiaries
  • Number of regular employees of the entire enterprise
  • Type of main business of the entire enterprise
  • Existence and number of branches

(2) Questionnaire II (for public establishments)

  • Name
  • Telephone number
  • Address
  • Number of persons employed
  • Type of operations
  • Name, telephone number, and location of the establishment (e.g., headquarters) to which management or operation is entrusted
  • Amount of Total Annual Sales (Income) of Entire Organization

Data processing

  The Bureau entrusts the data processing to the National Statistics Center. The major tabulation points are as follows:

  (a) Establishments

  • Items related to industry
  • Items related to number of employees
  • Items related to startup date
  • Items related to Amount of Total Annual Sales (Income)

  (b) Incorporated enterprises

  • Items related to industry
  • Items related to type of organization
  • Items related to capital
  • Items related to ratio of foreign equity
  • Items related to existence of parent company, subsidiaries
  • Items related to number of regular employees
  • Items related to Amount of Total Annual Sales (Income)

Publication

The major results of the 2014 census will be published as follows:

  • Preliminary results ·····························································································June 2015
  • Final results ······················································································ From November 2015
  • Results concerning establishments and enterprises
  • Results by town/village sections
  • Results by survey area
  • Grid square statistics
  • Results with matching parent companies

Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures such as economic policies, employment policies, environmental policies, and policies for medium- and small-sized enterprises
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for calculating macroeconomic figures such as the gross domestic expenditure
  3. (c) To provide a sampling framework for various sample surveys on establishments and enterprises

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/e-census/index.htm


(2) Economic Census for Business Activity

Purpose

  The objectives of the Economic Census for Business Activity are, by investigating the economic activity of establishments and enterprises, to identify the structure of establishments and enterprises in all industries on a national and regional level and to obtain basic information for conducting various statistical surveys.


Short history

  The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) in July 2009 conducted the “2009 Economic Census for Business Frame,” the aim of which was to identify the establishments and enterprises in Japan. Based on the results of this Census, in February 2012, MIC and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry conducted the “2012 Economic Census for Business Activity,” this time with the focus on identifying the activities of these establishments and enterprises during 2011, in cooperation with many other governmental Ministries and Agencies. The results from this Census are intended for use by business people since they also cover business administration, and not only government and researchers.

  When we conduct the “2012 Economic Census for Business Activity,” we integrated some of the major surveys, such as the “Establishment and Enterprise Census” and the “Survey on Service Industries,” into the new Census. Moreover, this new Census was to cover the question items contained in the “Census of Commerce in 2009” and the “Census of Manufactures 2011,” in order to reduce the burden on survey respondents.


Census date

  The census was conducted as of February 1, 2012.


Coverage

  This census covers all establishments and enterprises, excluding unincorporated establishments related to agriculture, forestry, fisheries, domestic services, and public establishments in both central and local governments, foreign governments, and international agencies operating in Japan.


Census organization

  The survey for the 2012 census conducted both by enumerators and by direct mailing.

(1) Survey by enumerators:

Image of census organization (Survey by enumerators)

(2) Survey by direct mailing:

(a) Survey by the central government

Image of census organization (Survey by the central government)

(b) Survey by prefectures

Image of census organization (Survey by prefectures)

(c) Survey by municipalities

Image of census organization (Survey by municipalities)


Survey methods

(1) Survey by enumerators

  In the case of single-unit establishments, an enumerator visited each establishment, distributed a questionnaire, and collected the completed questionnaire.

(2) Survey by direct mailing

  In the case of enterprises having head and branch offices, the relevant authorities directly mailed questionnaires to these enterprises, which can then return the completed questionnaires (in either printed or electronic form) by mail or via the Internet.


Survey items

  The Census surveyed following items:

  • Name and telephone number
  • Location
  • Presence or absence of relocation and name change
  • Startup date
  • Legal organization
  • Type of cooperative
  • Type of school, etc.
  • Type of political, business, and cultural organization and religious organization
  • Distinction of single-unit/head/branch, name and location of main office
  • Head office/other
  • Number of branch offices
  • Business activity
  • Type of establishment
  • Type of management/subsidiary work
  • Number of persons engaged
  • Presence or absence of electronic commerce and its proportion
  • Presence or absence of a capital investment and its acquisition value
  • Number of privately owned vehicles
  • Presence or absence of owned land and/or building
  • Capital and ratio of foreign equity
  • Account closing month
  • Sales(income)/ordinary revenue
  • Name of goods, sector with the highest sales, presence or absence of commission or repair fees
  • Ratio of transfer of goods between head office and branch office
  • Annual sales for goods rental and lease in the goods rental and leasing industry
  • Proportion of income by trading partner
  • Expense
  • Amount of contract and amount paid for lease contract
  • Tangible fixed assets
  • Production volume and sales
  • Value of stored products
  • Values of semi-processed products and works-in-progress, and value of raw materials and fuel
  • Volume of manufactured goods shipments, value of manufactured goods shipments, name of products, volume of manufactured goods inventory
  • Receipts for production done for others, product name of contract manufacturing, other revenue
  • Total amount of liquor tax, cigarette tax, gasoline tax, and local gasoline tax
  • Proportion of direct exportation value
  • Main raw materials
  • Industrial site and water
  • Working process
  • Value of commodity stock
  • Proportion of retail sales of each product group
  • Proportions of retail sales of each type of sales
  • Adoption of self-service system
  • Sales floor space
  • Business hours
  • Type of facility or store
  • Participation in a chain store organization
  • Type of construction for each type of management
  • License number for construction
  • Capacity and number of guest rooms for accommodation services
  • Number of cases, releases, visitors, users and students
  • Proportion of contracts with peers
  • Presence or absence of credit business and/or mutual aid activities

Data processing

  The two ministries entrusted the data processing to the National Statistics Center. The major tabulation points are as follows:

  (a) Establishments

  • Items related to industry
  • Items related to number of employees
  • Items related to type of organization

  (b) Incorporated enterprises

  • Items related to industry
  • Items related to type of organization
  • Items related to capital
  • Items related to number of regular employees

Publication

  The major results of the 2012 census were released as follows:

  • Preliminary report ····································································································· January, March 2013
  • Final report ··············································································· August, November 2013 and February 2014

Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain basic data employed in settlements of local consumption taxes, calculations of subsidies to municipalities, etc.
  2. (b) To obtain basic materials to determine policies pertaining to the economy, environmental protection, employment, small businesses, etc.
  3. (c) To obtain basic materials to determine policies to promote industries, regulate traffic, instruct business administration, and so on
  4. (d) To obtain basic materials used for calculating GDP and other economic indices
  5. (e) To obtain basic materials considered while making business plans, making decisions to launch a new store, etc.

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/e-census/2012/index.htm


(3) Unincorporated Enterprise Survey

Purpose

  The Unincorporated Enterprise Survey aims at providing comprehensive data on the activities and economic status of unincorporated enterprises in Japan. The survey is a valuable source of data on small enterprises because such data are scarce in Japan. The survey collects data on such enterprises on a quarterly basis.


Short history

  This survey was first carried out in April 1952. Until July 1961, the survey was known as the “Unincorporated Commercial and Manufacturing Enterprise Survey,” as it covered only the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail trade industries. In July 1961, some service industries were added to the coverage, and the survey was renamed the “Unincorporated Enterprise Survey.”

  In April 2002, some new questions were added to the survey items, such as those relating to business confidence and the age of proprietors. The sample of unincorporated enterprises was also increased from around 3,000 to 4,000 to improve the accuracy of the survey results.


Survey date

  This survey includes two types of surveys: the Trend Survey and the Structural Survey. The Trend Survey is conducted quarterly, i.e., for the periods of April to June, July to September, October to December, and January to March. Sample enterprises are surveyed for one year, divided into four rotation groups-each of which is exchanged quarterly with sliding spans of three months, because three-quarters of all samples remain the same for the sake of leveling shifts at the exchange of samples.

  The Structural Survey is carried out for samples of the Trend Survey in January to March every year of the yearly status, as of the last day of the previous year.


Coverage

  The survey covers about 4,000 unincorporated establishments in the following industries, according to the Japan Standard Industrial Classification (Rev.12, November 2007):

Division E - Manufacturing

Division I - Wholesale and retail trade

Division K - Real estate and goods rental and leasing

            70 Goods rental and leasing

Division L - Scientific research, professional and technical services

            73 Advertising

            74 Technical services, not elsewhere classified (n.e.c.) (limited to “744” commodity inspection and non-destructive testing services and “745” surveyor certification)

Division M - Accommodations, eating and drinking services (excl. “765” drinking houses and beer halls and “766” bars, cabarets and night clubs)

Division N - Living-related and personal services and amusement services

            78 Laundry, beauty, and bath services

            79 Miscellaneous living-related and personal services (excl. “792” domestic services)

Division R - Services, n.e.c.

            89 Automobile maintenance services

            90 Machine, etc. repair services, except otherwise classified

            91 Employment and worker dispatching services

            92 Miscellaneous business services


Sampling

  The Unincorporated Enterprise Survey employs a three-stage stratified sampling method. The municipalities constitute the primary sampling unit. Throughout Japan, 166 cities and 24 towns and villages are selected using a stratified sampling method. The secondary sampling unit is the unit area formed by combining several enumeration districts (EDs) of the Economic Census. From each sampled municipality, one unit area is selected randomly. The tertiary sampling unit is the establishment. Establishments are selected from the list of establishments prepared by the Economic Census. From each sampled unit area, 20 enterprises are selected in the case of cities, and 15 in the case of towns and villages. The overall sample size is around 4,000 enterprises.


Survey organization

  The survey is conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization


Survey method

  Enumerators distribute questionnaires to each unincorporated establishment selected by the Bureau and subsequently collect the completed questionnaires from the business proprietors or their representatives.


Survey items

(a) Trend Survey

  [Business sentiment of the business proprietor]

  • Operational status
  • Sales
  • Net operating profit
  • Inventories of products, commodities, and primary materials
  • Cash flow
  • Workforce in the current period

  [Persons engaged]

  • Number of persons engaged
  • Salaries and wages

  [Operating income, expenses, etc.]

  • Total of sales and purchases
  • Inventories
  • Operating expenses
  • Investment in plant and machinery

(b) Structural Survey

  [Type of operation]

  • Date of commencement of business
  • Operating days and hours
  • Type of land and building ownership used for business purposes
  • Affiliation with chain organizations
  • Tax return type

  [Business proprietor]

  • Age of business proprietor
  • Whether or not there is a successor to take over the business

  [Operating income, expenses, etc.]

  • Sales and purchases
  • Inventories
  • Operating expenses
  • Investment in plant and machinery

  [Persons engaged]

  • Number of persons engaged and their salaries or wages
  • Hiring and employment separation

  [Use of personal computers]

  [Problems in managing business]

  [Management policy]

  • Future plans for business development
  • Plans for incorporating enterprise

  [Assets and liabilities of the business]


Data processing

  The Bureau entrusts the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center. The following results are tabulated:

(a) Trend Survey

  • Operational status
  • Sales
  • Net operating profit
  • Investment in plant and machinery

(b) Structural Survey

  • Assets and liabilities of businesses
  • Age groups of business proprietors
  • Net operating profit
  • Presence or absence of successors

Publication

  The results of the Trend Survey are officially announced twice, first for the provisional version and second for the final version of the two months after the completion of each survey period, while those of the Structural Survey are released in July of the year following the survey year.

  The results of the Trend Survey are published in the “Quarterly Report on the Unincorporated Enterprise Survey (Trend Survey)” and the “Annual Report on the Unincorporated Enterprise Survey (Trend Survey),” while those of the Structural Survey are published in the “Report on the Unincorporated Enterprise Survey (Structural Survey).”


Use of the survey results (major examples)

(a) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures related to small-sized enterprises
(b) To obtain basic data for calculating macroeconomic figures such as the quarterly estimates (QE) of the GDP
(c) To obtain basic data for academic research, such as economic analysis and projection

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/kojinke/index.htm


(4) Survey of Research and Development

Purpose

  This survey is designed to provide the basic materials for promoting science and technology in Japan by studying research and development (R&D) activities currently carried out in the country. The data collected include the number of persons employed in R&D and the overall expenditure on R&D.


Short history

  The survey was initiated in August 1953 as the Basic Statistical Survey of Research Institutions; it was renamed the “Survey of Research and Development” in March 1960, following a major revision of the survey method.

  The coverage of this survey was extended to include all companies with a capital of one million yen or more (including public corporations), with the exception of a few industries. The statistical unit for reporting R&D activities was changed from R&D establishments to business enterprises with or without R&D divisions.

  Later, from the 1995 survey onward, the survey excluded all companies with a capital of less than ten million yen, with the exception of a few industries.

  From the 2002 survey onward, the survey was extensively revised to cover even more industries, along with the introduction of some changes in sampling and the survey items. The aim was to make the survey compatible with recent changes in the R&D environment, such as advances in the activities of non-manufacturing industries and the globalization of R&D activities conducted by businesses.


Reference date and period

  The survey is conducted every year. The reference date of the survey is March 31 for data pertaining to personnel and capital. For data pertaining to sales, including R&D expenditures, the reference period is the fiscal year ending on the latest settling day prior to March 31.


Coverage

  The survey covers business enterprises, non-profit institutions and public organizations, and universities and colleges. The statistical units are as follows:

(a) Business enterprises

  Enterprises

(b) Non-profit institutions and public organizations

  Organizations

(c) Universities and colleges

  The universities and colleges include faculties of universities and other facilities (including postgraduate courses), junior colleges, technical colleges, research institutes attached to universities, Inter-university Research Institute Corporations, and the Institute of National Colleges of Technology.


Sampling

  The survey covers approximately 13,400 business enterprises, 1,100 non-profit institutions and public organizations, and 3,700 universities and colleges, which makes a total of approximately 18,200 entities. These are selected based on the following criteria:

(a) The business enterprises are divided into strata based on the existence of research activities (yes or no: 2 categories), capital (4 classes), and industries (40 categories), using the roster created based on the results of the 2009 Economic Census for Business Frame and the previous survey. The prescribed number of business enterprises was selected from each stratum.

(b) The non-profit institutions and public organizations are surveyed using a list prepared based on reports from the central and local governments.

(c) All universities and colleges in Japan are surveyed using the list compiled with materials from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.


Survey method

  The Bureau entrusts the questionnaire distribution to a company that mails the questionnaires to three respondents for business enterprises, non-profit institutions and public organizations, and universities and colleges. The completed questionnaires are directly returned to the Bureau by mail or via the Internet. The option of Internet questionnaire collection has been offered since the 2003 survey.


Survey items

  The survey items are enumerated using three questionnaires: Questionnaire A for business enterprises, Questionnaire B for non-profit institutions and public organizations, and Questionnaire C for universities and colleges. Among business enterprises, Questionnaire A-I is used for enterprises with a capital of 100 million yen or more, while Questionnaire A-II is used for enterprises with a capital of less than 100 million yen.

(a) Questionnaires A-I and A-II

  • Name
  • Location
  • Present status of the business enterprise
  • Total number of persons employed
  • Capital
  • Sales
  • Technology balance of payments
  • Countries or territories and amount of distinction or origin in technology exports and imports
  • Whether the enterprise conducts R&D activities or not
  • Names of research laboratories, research divisions, sections, etc., of the company
  • Number of persons employed in R&D (researchers, assistant research workers, technicians, clerical and other supporting personnel, and researchers with PhDs)
  • Number of researchers that have joined or left the business enterprise
  • Number of researchers by specialty (20 specialties)
  • Intramural expenditure on R&D, including labour costs, materials, expenditure on fixed assets, lease fees, other expenses, and depreciation of fixed assets
  • Expenditure on R&D by type of activity (basic research, applied research, development)
  • Expenditure on R&D by product and service field (31 categories) (Questionnaire A-I only)
  • Expenditure on R&D by selected objective (recovery and reconstruction from the Great East Japan Earthquake, promotion of green innovation, promotion of life innovation, life sciences, information technology, environmental science and technology, materials, nanotechnology, energy, space exploration, and oceanology) (Questionnaire A-I only)
  • R&D funds received from public organizations, companies, private universities, non-profit organizations, and overseas institutions
  • R&D funds paid out to public organizations, companies, private universities, non-profit organizations, and overseas institutions

(b) Questionnaires B and C

  • Name
  • Location
  • Whether the organization conducts R&D activities or not (Questionnaire B only)
  • Total number of persons employed (Questionnaire B only)
  • Total expenditure
  • Description of main operations and R&D activities (Questionnaire B only)
  • Type of university or college (faculty of university, junior college, technical college, research institute attached to university, Inter-university Research Institute Corporation, and the Institute of National Colleges of Technology, or other) (Questionnaire C only)
  • Field of science of the main R&D activity (11 categories) (Questionnaire B only)
  • Names and locations of branches
  • Field of science of the main R&D activity (12 categories) (Questionnaire C only)
  • Number of persons employed in R&D (same as in Questionnaire A)
  • Number of persons employed in R&D (regular researchers including teachers, doctor course students, medical staff, and others), external non-regular researchers, assistant research workers, technicians, and clerical and other supporting personnel, regular researchers with Ph. D.’s and non-R&D personnel (Questionnaire C only)
  • Number of researchers that have joined or left the organization (institution)
  • Number of researchers by specialty (26 specialties) (Questionnaire B only)
  • Number of regular researchers by specialty (44 specialties) (Questionnaire C only)
  • Intramural expenditure on R&D, including labour costs, materials, expenditure on fixed assets, lease fees, and other expenses
  • Expenditure on R&D by type of activity (same as in Questionnaire A-I)
  • Expenditure on R&D by selected objective (same as in Questionnaire A-I)
  • R&D funds received (same as in Questionnaire A-I)
  • R&D funds paid out (same as in Questionnaire A-I)

Data processing

  The Bureau entrusts the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center. The major tabulation points are as follows:

  • Items related to expenditure on R&D
  • Items related to the number of persons employed in R&D
  • Items related to the international exchange of technology

Publication

  The Bureau released the 2014 survey results on December 12, 2014.


Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures such as the Priority Policy Program
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for white papers released by the government such as those on science and technology
  3. (c) To obtain basic data for calculating macroeconomic figures such as the GDP
  4. (d) To provide basic data to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) publications for international comparisons
  5. (e) To obtain basic data for academic research, such as economic analysis and projection

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/kagaku/index.htm


(5) Monthly Survey on Service Industries

Purpose

  The main aim of the survey is to provide the best possible monthly estimates of sales (income) and the number of persons working in establishments for the service industries and, subsequently, to enhance the accuracy of economic indicators such as Quarterly Estimates (QE) of GDP.


Short history

  Over the last several decades, the service industries’ share in the Japanese economy has steadily risen to exceed 70% in 2006, in terms of both GDP and employment. However, adequate statistics to understand the entire picture of these trends have not been in place, and the understanding of the trends of the production and the number of employees of the entire service industry had become an urgent issue facing the government. Consequently, a new survey was initiated in October 2008 to meet the increasing needs for statistics pertaining to the service industries.

  In addition, an annual survey (Expanded survey) has been conducted since 2013 in order to provide more detailed data such as sales by prefecture for local governments and private companies.


Reference date and period

  The monthly survey is conducted regarding sales for each month, the number of persons working at the location of establishment on the business day nearest to the end of the month and demand situation for each month.

  The annual survey (expanded survey) conducted in June once a year is in principle conducted on a calendar year basis regarding sales for each year, and regarding the number of persons working at the location of establishment on the business day nearest to the end of June.


Coverage

  The survey covered enterprises, etc. [1] or establishments whose main industry is classified under the following groups [2] of the Japan Standard Industrial Classification (Rev.12, November 2007):


Major groups

Medium groups

G Information and communications

 

 

 

 

 

37 Communications

38 Broadcasting

39 Information services

40 Internet based service

41 Video picture, sound information, character information production

     and distribution

H Transport and postal activities

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

42 Railway transport

43 Road passenger transport

44 Road freight transport

45 Water transport

46 Air transport

47 Warehousing

48 Services incidental to transport

49 Postal activities, including mail delivery

K Real estate, goods rental and leasing

 

 

68 Real estate agencies

69 Real estate lessors and managers

70 Goods rental and leasing

L Scientific research, professional and technical services

 

 

72 Professional services, n.e.c.

73 Advertising

74 Technical services, n.e.c.

M Accommodations, eating and drinking services

 

 

75 Accommodations

76 Eating and drinking places

77 Food takeout and delivery services

N Living-related and personal services and amusement services

 

 

78 Laundry, beauty and bath services

79 Miscellaneous living-related and personal services

80 Services for amusement and hobbies

O Education, learning support

82 Miscellaneous education, learning support

P Medical, health care and welfare

 

 

83 Medical and other health services

84 Public health and hygiene

85 Social insurance and social welfare

R Services, n.e.c.

 

 

 

 

 

88 Waste disposal business

89 Automobile maintenance services

90 Machine, etc. repair services, except otherwise classified

91 Employment and worker dispatching services

92 Miscellaneous business services

95 Miscellaneous services

Note: [1] An “enterprise” is defined as a corporation (excluding foreign companies) conducting business activities or an establishment of individual proprietorship. “Enterprise, etc.” refers to those entities, including a part of public enterprises, etc. operated by the national government or a local government.
Note: [2] Some of the medium groups such as “71 Scientific and development research institutes” in “L Scientific research, professional and technical services” are excluded.
Note: [3] Enterprises, etc. or establishments in “G Information and communications” are not surveyed in the expanded survey.

Sampling

(1) Enterprise, etc.

A  The survey is conducted on enterprises, etc. belonging to the industries that do not fit a survey by sampling establishments, such as the minor group “371 Fixed telecommunications,” “372 Mobile telecommunications,” and “382 Private-sector broadcasting except cablecasting,” and the medium group “42 Railway transport,” “46 Air transport” or “49 Postal activities including mail delivery service.”

B  The survey is conducted on all enterprises belonging to the industries other than the above A, with capital, investment, or fund (hereinafter “capital, etc.”)of 100 million yen or more.

  The monthly survey covers about 13,000 enterprises, etc.

  The annual survey (expanded survey) covers about 9,500 enterprises, etc., excluding those in “G Information and communications.”

(2) Establishment

  Samples are selected by stratified random samples for groups based on the number of persons working at the location of establishment for establishments which belong to the industries other than the above A and do not belong to enterprise, etc. falling under the above A or B. For sampling establishments, all establishments in the stratum above a certain scale are surveyed.

  The monthly survey covers about 26,000 establishments.

  The annual survey (expanded survey) covers about 67,000 establishments, excluding those in “G Information and communications.”


Survey organization

  The Bureau entrusts the implementation of the survey to research companies. The survey is conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization

* Enumerators may visit establishments with less than 10 employees which do not submit questionnaires.

Image of survey organization (Establishments with less than 10 employees which do not submit questionnaires)


Survey method

[Survey by Mail]

  In principle, questionnaires are distributed and collected by mail.

  However, for establishments whose number of persons working at the location of establishment is less than 10 and for which questionnaires have yet to be collected, the enumerators can directly visit the surveyed establishment and collect questionnaires.

[Online Survey]

  Depending on the request of the surveyed enterprises, etc. or establishments, questionnaires are distributed and collected online.


Survey items

[Monthly survey]

  The monthly survey uses two types of questionnaires: the “questionnaire for the first month” and the “monthly questionnaire.” While the former is to be filled at the beginning of the survey, the latter is used from the second month onward.

  The following items are surveyed:

(1)First month questionnaires

For Enterprise, etc.

For Establishment

Categories of main business of establishments

Number of persons working at the location of establishment and

breakdowns (of survey month and the previous month)

Number of persons working at the location of establishment and the

breakdowns (of survey month and the previous month)

Monthly sales (income) and breakdowns by business activity

(of survey month and the previous month)

Monthly sales (income) (of survey month and the previous month)

 

Demand situation by business activity (of survey month)

Demand situation (of survey month)


(2)Monthly questionnaires

For Enterprise, etc.

For Establishment

Number of persons working at the location of establishment and

breakdowns (of survey month)

Number of persons working at the location of establishment and the

breakdowns (of survey month)

Monthly sales (income) and breakdowns by business activity

(of survey month)

Monthly sales (income) (of survey month)

 

Demand situation by business activity (of survey month)

Demand situation (of survey month)


[Annual Survey] (Expanded survey)

  The annual survey uses “expanded survey questionnaires.”

  The following items are surveyed:

Expanded survey questionnaires

For Enterprise, etc.

For Establishment

Types of major business of establishments

Legal organization and the amount of capital, etc.

Legal organization and the amount of capital, etc.

Period for posting sales (income)

Period for posting sales (income)

Annual sales (income), etc. and breakdowns by business activity

and prefecture

Annual sales (income), etc.

 

Number of persons working at the location of establishment by

business activity and prefecture

Number of persons working at the location of establishment and the

breakdowns


Data processing

  The Bureau entrusts the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center.


Publication

[Monthly survey]

  The preliminary survey results are released two months after the survey month.

  The final survey results are released five months after the survey month.

  In addition, the “Annual Report on the Monthly Survey on Service Industries” is published in the following year.

  The results will be published on reports and displayed on the Bureau website.

[Annual Survey] (Expanded survey)

  The results of the annual survey (expanded survey) is released as a “preliminary report” in late December of the survey year and as a “final report” around autumn of the next year.

  The results will be published on reports and displayed on the Bureau website.


Use of the survey results (major examples)

  To obtain basic data for economic indicators such as Quarterly Estimates (QE) of GDP


Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/mssi/index.htm


(6) Establishment and Enterprise Census [1947-2006]

Purpose

  The purpose of the Establishment and Enterprise Census was to collect fundamental data on establishments and enterprises, such as geographical distribution, industrial characteristics, and number of persons employed. The Establishment and Enterprise Census was one of the most important data sources for economic policy planning and regional analyses. It also provided a directory of establishments and enterprises, which could be used as a sample frame for various sample surveys on establishments and enterprises.


Short history

  The Establishment Census was conducted for the first time in 1947. After the second census was conducted in 1948, it was conducted every three years until 1981. Since then, it was conducted every five years until 2006. New survey items were added to in the 1996 census to keep up with current trends among enterprises engaging in more international and diversified activities, and the name of the census was also changed from the “Establishment Census” to the “Establishment and Enterprise Census.” The survey was terminated in 2006 with the commencement of the Economic Census, which covers all industries.


Census date

  The census date was generally October 1; however, there were several circumstance-driven exceptions in the census years.


Coverage

  The 2006 Establishment and Enterprise Census covered all establishments and enterprises in Japan as of the census date. An establishment was defined, in principle, as a business unit based at one site under a single management. If a business unit operated businesses at different sites, the business unit at each site was regarded as a separate establishment. If two or more business units operated a business at one site, both business units were regarded as separate establishments. There were, however, exceptions in the case of some industries, based on their particular operational methods. An enterprise in this census was a joint stock company, a limited or unlimited partnership company, a limited liability company, or a mutual insurance company, as defined in terms of the legal organizational status.

  The following types of establishments and enterprises were excluded from the 2006 Establishment and Enterprise Census:

  1. (a) Individual proprietor establishments in A-Agriculture, B-Forestry, and C-Fisheries, and establishments of 832-Domestic services and 94-Foreign governments and international agencies in Japan in Q-Services, n.e.c. according to the Japan Standard Industrial Classification Rev. 11
  2. (b) Establishments located in the premises of institutions requiring entrance fees, such as vendors in theaters, recreational grounds, sports stadiums, and stations (Note that independently managed establishments in amusement parks are part of the survey.)
  3. (c) Individual proprietary establishments operating on commission (e.g., part-time home businesses) using no particular business equipment
  4. (d) Establishments where the persons engaged do not receive income from the business
  5. (e) Establishments that were closed down temporarily or not in operation, and thus engaged no persons
  6. (f) Seasonal establishments not in operation at the time of the census

Survey organization

  The 2006 Establishment and Enterprise Census consisted of Survey A, covering all private establishments and enterprises, and Survey B, covering all public establishments in both the central and local governments.

(a) Survey A (for private establishments and enterprises) was conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization (Survey A)

(b) Survey B (for public establishments) was conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization (Survey B)


Survey methods

(a) Survey A

  Enumerators visited establishments in the enumeration districts (EDs) to which they were assigned and requested the respondents to complete the questionnaire for Survey A. In addition, to supplement and maintain the results of Survey A, a simplified census was conducted within three years of conducting the Establishment and Enterprise Census.

(b) Survey B

  In the case of establishments surveyed by the municipalities, the respective municipal mayors were responsible for sending and collecting the questionnaires, while in the case of establishments surveyed by the prefectures, prefectural governors sent and collected the questionnaires. In the case of establishments surveyed by the Bureau, the Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications was responsible for sending and collecting the questionnaires.

[Enumeration districts (EDs)]

  The entire area of Japan was divided into EDs that had been accurately mapped and established during the 1972 Census. Subsequently, the EDs have been partially amended in consecutive censuses to incorporate certain changes. However, the number of establishments in the EDs became distorted to such an extent that it adversely affected the census. Therefore, all the EDs were revised for the 1996 census as of March 1, 1996. This revision aimed at restoring the balance among EDs in terms of the number of establishments, with each ED comprising approximately 30 establishments, providing clear boundaries for EDs, and facilitating statistical links between the Population Census, and the Establishment and Enterprise Census. In the 2006 census, the EDs were established by amending the EDs used in the 2001 Establishment and Enterprise Census.

  These EDs provided a basis for census-taking not only for the Establishment and Enterprise Census but also for the Census of Commerce and the Census of Manufacturers conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. The EDs were also used in the execution of statistical surveys-in particular, they provided basic area units for compiling small-area statistics and served as the basic sampling frame for various sample surveys on establishments.


Survey items

  Only the most fundamental survey items were investigated through the Establishment and Enterprise Census, and these items have remained essentially unaltered in consecutive censuses, with only a few changes introduced to meet new demands from statistics users. The 2006 census covered the following items:

(a) For all private establishments

  • Name and telephone number
  • Location
  • Legal organization
  • Whether head or branch office, name and location of head office
  • Establishment startup date
  • Number of employees
  • Type and form of business conducted at the establishment

(b) For single unit or head establishments of companies

  • Year and month of incorporation for registration purposes
  • Capital and ratio of foreign equity
  • Parent company or subsidiary, name and location of parent company
  • Company merger and separation on or after October 2, 2001
  • Electronic commerce
  • Number of branch offices
  • Number of regular employees of entire company
  • Type of business activity conducted by entire company

Data processing

  The process of tabulation of the Establishment and Enterprise Census differed from that of the other surveys conducted by the Bureau. In the other surveys, coding and data inputting were carried out by the National Statistics Center; however, for the Establishment and Enterprise Census, industries were coded at the municipal level and data were input at the prefectural level. The statistics divisions of the prefectures then submitted their individual records of establishments to the National Statistics Center on magnetic tape, which was responsible for tabulating the Census results; these are then sent to the Bureau for release and publication.

  The major tabulation points of the 2006 census were as follows:

(a) Establishments

  • Items related to industry
  • Items related to number of employees
  • Items related to type of legal organization
  • Items related to head or branch office
  • Items related to startup date
  • Items related to type of establishment

(b) Incorporated enterprises

  • Items related to industry
  • Items related to number of regular employees
  • Items related to date of establishments
  • Items related to ratio of foreign equity
  • Items related to parent company, subsidiaries, and affiliated companies
  • Items related to engagements in electronic commerce

Publication

  The major results of the 2006 census were published as follows:

  • Interim Report···························································································································July 2007
  • Results of establishments and enterprises by prefecture················································ October-December2007
  • Results of establishments in the whole of Japan······································································December 2007
  • Results of incorporated enterprises in the whole of Japan························································· December 2007
  • Results of incorporated enterprises in the whole of Japan-Single-unit establishments
    and head establishments matched with domestic branches by name ················································· June 2008

Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures such as economic policies, employment policies, environmental policies, and policies for medium- and small-sized enterprises
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for calculating macroeconomic figures such as the Gross Domestic Expenditure
  3. (c) To provide a sampling framework for various sample surveys on establishments and enterprises

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/jigyou/index.htm


(7) Survey on Service Industries [1989-2004]

Purpose

  The purpose of the Survey on Service Industries was to provide data on the distribution and structure of establishments engaged in service industries.


Short history

  The Survey on Service Industries was conducted every five years from 1989 to 2004. The survey was terminated in 2009 with the commencement of the Economic Census, which covers all industries.


Survey date

  The last survey was conducted on June 1, 2004.


Coverage

  The 2004 survey covered the following industries as classified under the Japan Standard Industrial Classification (Rev. 11, March 2002):

Division H - Information and communications

  41 - Video pictures, sound information, character information production and distribution (including only the following minor group)

            415 - Services incidental to video pictures, sound information, character information production and distribution

Division L - Real estate

  69 - Real estate lessors and managers

Division M - Eating and drinking places, accommodation

  70 - General eating and drinking places

  72 - Accommodation

Division N - Medical, health care, and welfare

  73 - Medical and other health services (including only the following minor groups)

            734 - Maternity clinics and nursing

            735 - Other health practitioners

            736 - Services incidental to medical care

  74 - Public health and hygiene

  75 - Social insurance and social welfare

Division O - Education, learning support

  77 - Miscellaneous education, learning support

Division P - Compound services

  79 - Cooperative associations, n.e.c.

Division Q - Services, n.e.c.

  80 - Professional services, n.e.c.

  81 - Scientific and development research institutes

  82 - Laundry, beauty, and bath services

  83 - Miscellaneous living-related and personal services (excluding 832 Domestic services)

  84 - Services for amusement and hobbies

  85 - Waste disposal business

  86 - Automobile maintenance services

  87 - Machine, etc., repair services, except where otherwise classified

  88 - Goods rental and leasing

  89 - Advertising

  90 - Miscellaneous business services

  91 - Political, business, and cultural organizations

  92 - Religion

  93 - Miscellaneous services


Sampling

  The sample size of the 2004 survey was around 430,000 establishments. These establishments were selected based on the following criteria:

  1. (a) All establishments engaging 30 or more persons at the time of the 2001 Establishment and Enterprise Census
  2. (b) New establishments engaging 30 or more persons and those established after the 2001 Establishment and Enterprise Census in designated enumeration districts sampled at a ratio of 1:6
  3. (c) Establishments engaging fewer than 30 persons at the time of the 2001 Establishment and Enterprise Census, sampled using a proportionate systematic sampling method for prefectures and minor industrial groups

Survey organization

  The 2004 survey was conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization


Survey method

  In the 2004 survey, the enumerators delivered the survey questionnaires to the establishments in their respective designated areas and subsequently collected the completed questionnaires, which were filled in by the designated persons of the establishments.


Survey items

  The 2004 survey covered the following items:

  • Name and telephone number
  • Location
  • Legal organization
  • Head or branch office
  • Establishment startup date
  • Number of persons engaged in the establishment
  • Business activities of the establishment
  • Capital
  • Type of startup
  • Income (annual)
  • Ratio of incomes by business or activity
  • Ratio of incomes by other parties
  • Expenses (annual)
  • Wages and salaries (annual)
  • Equipment investment (annual) (excluding expenditure on land acquisition)

Data processing

  The Bureau entrusted the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center.

  The major statistical tables of the 2004 survey were as follows:

  • Number of establishments
  • Number of persons engaged
  • Income
  • Expenses
  • Equipment investment

  The results of the 2004 survey were estimated in terms of a ratio estimate, using the number of establishments in the 2004 Establishment and Enterprise Census by prefecture, minor industry group, and type of legal organization as benchmarks.


Publication

  The results of the 2004 survey were published in the following volumes:

  • Japan ·············································································· March 2006
  • Regional ·········································································· March 2006
  • Summary Report ························································· September 2006

Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain basic data for calculating the local consumption tax
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures, such as industrial development policies and labour policies, as well as for private sector use
  3. (c) To obtain basic data for the Input-Output Tables

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/service/index.htm


(8) Establishment Frame Database

Purpose

  The establishment frame database is a database with information on all the establishments and enterprises operating in Japan. Its main objectives are to produce precise and efficient statistics and to reduce the burden on surveyed establishments and enterprises. The information on establishments and enterprises that is recorded in the database is utilized in sampling for surveys conducted by the ministries and administrative agencies. Moreover, the database also records the number of times each establishment and enterprise is surveyed, thus preventing any unfairness of burden.

  In terms of the precision and efficiency of the survey, the Bureau maintains a database containing administrative information and data from other surveys, and if necessary, the Bureau can directly contact establishments and enterprises. Furthermore, the database is capable of producing new types of statistics by combining the various survey data and administrative information.

  Based on these operations and functions, the database will play a key role in the future industrial surveys.


Background

  In the mid-1980s and through the 1990s, many Western countries constructed new databases called “Business Registers” that could generate precise statistics with minimal expenditure. During the same time, the Japanese government treated the establishment frame database as an urgent theme.

  Based on these circumstances, Article 27 (1) of the new Statistics Act, which came into force in April 2009, places the Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications in charge of constructing and managing the establishment frame database.

  Based on the related regulations and plans, the Bureau started the database renovation in 2010 and began the operation of the new establishment frame database in 2013. In 2013, the “Business Register Frame” based on information in the new database was released for the first time and will be produced regularly every year.


Items included in the database

  In addition to the survey items of the Economic Census, the Bureau stores fundamental data, such as the name of an establishment or enterprise, its address, industrial classification, number of persons employed, and revenue (or income.) Moreover, the Bureau can store data that are extracted from other industrial surveys and closely related to the Economic Census, which are in high demand.


Function of the database

  At present, the Bureau is planning the functions of the database before starting its construction; the main functions of the database are as follows:

1. To provide the business register frame

  This is a key function of the database. When any ministry or administrative agency decides to conduct a survey, it needs basic information regarding establishments and enterprises for the sampling. The database could provide data in this regard, and the Bureau should maintain such a database from other surveys and administrative information in order to provide precise data whenever such need arises.

2. To reduce the burden on respondents

  The government should prevent overburdening of respondents and spread out the surveys over as wide a group of respondents as possible.

  The database maintains the number of times each establishment and enterprise has been surveyed. Hence, it can be used to ensure that no establishment or enterprise is burdened to an unfair extent.

3. To generate new statistics

  By combining the data collected from various surveys and the administrative information received from other ministries and administrative agencies, it is possible that the ministries and administrative agencies can generate new statistics, compare data with time lines, and compile regional statistics from geographical information.


4. Statistics on household income and expenditure, price statistics

  The Bureau conducts four sample surveys concerning household income and expenditure as well as prices.

  • Family Income and Expenditure Survey (monthly)
  • National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure (quinquennial)
  • Survey of Household Economy (monthly)
  • Retail Price Survey (monthly)

  The Bureau also compiles the Consumer Price Index (CPI) using the results of the Retail Price Survey and the Family Income and Expenditure Survey as weights. The four surveys and the CPI are outlined below.


                      Name

          Cycle

Conducted since

                                        Size

(Family budgets)

Family Income and Expenditure

Survey (F)

 

 

    Monthly

 

 

 

1946

 

 

 

            9,000 households

 

 

National Survey of Family Income

and Expenditure (F)

    Quinquennial

 

1959

 

            56,400 households(2014)

 

 

Survey of Household Economy (G)

 

    Monthly

 

2001

 

            30,000 households

 

(Prices)

Retail Price Survey

(Trend Survey) (F)

 

    Monthly

 

1950

 

 

            26,000 stores and establishments (prices)

            25,000 households (houserent)

 

Retail Price Survey

(Structural Survey) (F)

 

    Monthly

 

 

2013

 

 

            3,000 stores

 

 

*National Survey of Prices (F)

 

    Quinquennial

 

[1967-2007]

 

205,000 stores and establishments (2007)

 

Consumer Price Index (P)

 

    Monthly

 

1946

 

-

  (F):Fundamental Statistical Surveys; (G):General Statistical Surveys; (P):Processed statistics

  *The National Survey of Prices is combined in the Retail Price Survey (Structural Survey)



(1) Family Income and Expenditure Survey

Purpose

  The Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) aims to provide comprehensive data regarding the income and expenditure of households on a monthly basis.


Short history

  The first Family Budget Survey was conducted in 1926. Since it was initially a regular survey, it was conducted annually from 1931 to 1943.

  After a brief hiatus during World War II, the Consumer Price Survey (CPS) was introduced in 1946 to collect monthly data on household expenditure and item-by-item purchases as well as purchase prices. However, since this survey covered only the outflow of money in the household economy and lacked data regarding income, the Family Income Survey (FIS) was introduced in 1948, which surveyed only the income-related data of households, independently of the CPS.

  In 1950, the CPS and the FIS were combined to form a single survey called the Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES), the original version of the present survey. However, this survey covered only urban areas with a sample size of approximately 4,200 households selected from 28 major cities. In 1962, the sample size was expanded to cover the entire country and consisted of approximately 8,000 households from 168 sample municipalities. In 2002, the FIES incorporated one-person households, which had been independently surveyed by the Income and Expenditure Survey for One-person Households from 1995 until 2001, and introduced survey items regarding savings and liabilities (only for households of two or more persons). The sample size of the FIES, consequently, has been enlarged to include approximately 9,000 households.


Reference date and period

  This survey on the daily income and expenditure of households is carried out for six months for households comprising two or more persons. For one-person households, however, the survey is conducted for three months. The survey on yearly income refers to the one year prior to the first survey month, and the survey on savings and liabilities refers to the first day of the third survey month.


Coverage

  The survey unit includes households residing throughout Japan, except one-person student households. The following households, however, are excluded from the survey:

  1. (a) Households that manage restaurants, hotels, boarding houses or dormitories, sharing their dwellings
  2. (b) Households that serve meals to boarders, even when managing boarding houses is not the household occupation
  3. (c) Households with four or more live-in employees
  4. (d) Households whose heads are absent for long periods (three months or more)
  5. (e) Households of foreigners

Sampling

  The FIES covers all households in Japan. The number of households involved in this survey was estimated at around 50 million as of 2013.

  The survey employs a three-stage stratified sampling method. The sampling units in the three stages are the municipalities, unit areas consisting of two neighboring enumeration districts (EDs) of the Population Census, and households.

  The first stage of the selection involves the 168 municipalities. Subsequently, the following numbers of unit areas are selected for each municipality, depending on its size:

  • Cities with prefectural governments:  16
  • Cities of Kawasaki, Sagamihara, Hamamatsu, Sakai, and Kitakyushu:  16
  • Medium-sized cities (cities with a population of 150,000 or more):  6
  • Small cities A (cities with a population of 50,000 or more):  4
  • Small cities B (cities with a population of less than 50,000), towns, and villages:  2

  Larger numbers of unit areas are allocated for the 23 wards that make up the centre of Tokyo and the cities of Yokohama, Nagoya, Osaka, and Naha.

  In the third stage, in each sample unit area, six households are selected randomly from among households comprising two or more persons, while one household is selected from among the one-person households. The former households are surveyed for six months, while the latter are surveyed for three months. The overall sample size is approximately 9,000 households.


Survey organization

  The FIES is conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization


Survey method

  In the FIES, enumerators provide a family account book to the sample households and request them to record all their receipts and disbursements in the book (the sample households of individual proprietors, corporative administrators, and professional service operators are not required to report receipts). The quantity of purchase of items such as food and household durable goods is also recorded. Moreover, the enumerators prepare a “household schedule” based on their interviews with the household representatives, and the households are requested to report their yearly income. In addition, all households consisting of two or more persons are requested to report their savings and liabilities as of the first day of the third survey month.


Survey items

  The FIES surveys the following items:

(a) Household schedule

  • Number of household members
  • Occupation and industry of earners
  • Type of dwelling etc.

(b) Family account book

  • Daily income and expenditure

(c)Yearly income schedule

  • Yearly income and its breakdown

(d)Savings schedule

  • Amounts of savings and liabilities
  • Plans to purchase house or land

Data processing

  The Bureau entrusts the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center.

  The Center summarizes receipts and disbursements according to the classification system adopted for the survey. It tabulates data on income, expenditure, and quantity of purchase in the form of average figures per household per month.

  The results are tabulated as statistics for the following household characteristics:

  • Level of annual income
  • Level of regular wages and salaries
  • Number of household members
  • Age group of the head of the household
  • Occupation of the head of the household
  • Industry of enterprise in which the head of the household is employed
  • Size of enterprise in which the head of the household is employed
  • Family composition
  • Tenure of dwelling

Publication

  Preliminary reports on the income and expenditure of households comprising two or more persons are published on a monthly basis at the end of the month following the survey; these are then reported at cabinet meetings.

  Preliminary reports on one-person households as well as all the households (aggregates of one-person households and households comprising two or more persons) are published on a quarterly basis, approximately a month-and-a-half after the survey month.

  The results for the savings and liabilities of households comprising two or more persons are also published on a quarterly basis five months after the survey month.

  Annual average figures are published in the “Annual Report on the Family Income and Expenditure Survey.”


Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain indicators of national economic and business trends
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures such as tax policies, social welfare plans, community organization plans, and agricultural measures
  3. (c) To obtain basic data for calculating macroeconomic figures such as Gross Domestic Expenditure and the CPI
  4. (d) To obtain basic data for a variety of other purposes, such as econometric analysis and market research

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/kakei/index.htm


(2) National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure

Purpose

  The National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure (NSFIE) is a large-scale quinquennial sample survey. It aims to collect and compile comprehensive data on household income; expenditure; savings; loans; major durable goods owned by the household; and the status of dwellings, houses, and land owned by the household on a regional as well as nationwide basis.

[Comparison with the FIES]

  Although there is a similar survey called the Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES), which is conducted on a monthly basis, its main object is to reveal nationwide household trends in average family income and expenditure over time. Since the sample size of this survey is as small as 9,000 families, the monthly survey is not appropriate for performing detailed cross-section analyses. On the other hand, the present NSFIE is designed to sample approximately 56,400 households (including 4,700 one-person households), hence enabling detailed analyses based on various household characteristics such as income group, household age group, etc. and geographical areas such as regions, prefectures, etc., which are beyond the scope of the monthly survey.


Short history

  The survey has been conducted every five years since 1959. The 12th survey was conducted in 2014.


Reference period

  This survey was carried out in the months of September, October, and November. For one-person households, however, the survey was conducted in October and November, and the survey on pocket money given to household members aged 18 years or above was conducted for one month during the survey period. The survey on major durable goods owned by households had the reference date of October 31, while that on savings and loans has the reference date of November 30. The following explanation is based on the method used for the 2014 survey.


Coverage


  The 2014 NSFIE utilized a sample of approximately 51,700 households comprising two or more persons and 4,700 one-person households.

  The sample universe of the survey comprises all households residing in Japan; however, the following types of household were excluded:

(a) For households comprising two or more persons

  • Households operating eateries, lodges, or boarding houses from the dwelling units wherein they resided
  • Households with four or more live-in employees
  • Households of foreigners

(b) For one-person households

  • Households of persons less than 15 years old
  • Households operating eateries, lodges, or boarding houses from the dwelling units wherein they resided
  • Households with one or more live-in employees
  • Households of foreigners
  • Students
  • Institutional households
  • Households living in camps of the Self-Defense Forces

Sampling

  The sampling method for the NSFIE has been essentially the same since its inception. The sampling is carried out separately for households comprising two or more persons and for one-person households.

  For households comprising two or more persons, the sampling method is a combination of two- and three-stage stratified sampling. In the urban areas (cities), all 791 cities are surveyed using a two-stage sampling method, the primary sampling unit being unit areas consisting of two enumeration districts of the Population Census and the secondary sampling unit being households. From each unit area, 11 households are selected at random. At least 22 sample households are allocated to each city. A three-stage sampling method is utilized in the non-urban areas (towns and villages), wherein 212 of all 929 towns and villages in Japan are selected by stratified sampling. Subsequently, in the sample towns and villages, a two-stage sampling method is utilized to select households in the same way as in the urban areas. The 2014 survey sampled a total number of 51,656 households, indicating a sampling ratio of around 1:900.

  For one-person households, sample households are selected randomly from the same sample unit areas as households comprising two or more persons. The total sample for one-person households was 4,696 for the entire country.


Survey organization

  The 2014 NSFIE was conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization


Survey method

  In this survey, the enumerators distributed a family account book among all sample households and requested them to record all receipts and disbursements in the book. The family account books were of two types: “Family Account Book A” and “Family Account Book B”; the respondents had to enter accounts of their income and expenditure in the former, while they had to enter the type of goods purchased in the latter, in addition to the account of their income and expenditure. The survey for Family Account Book A was conducted in September and October, while that for Family Account Book B was conducted in November. Moreover, the “Durable Goods Questionnaire” was completed by the survey households and collected by enumerators at the end of October, while the “Yearly Income and Savings Questionnaire” was completed by the survey households at the end of November. The survey households were also requested to complete the “Household Questionnaire” on September 1, in the case of households comprising two or more persons, and on October 1 in the case of one-person households. In addition, households in the EDs designated by the Bureau could fill in questionnaires via an electronic information processing system with telecommunication lines connecting the Bureau’s computers with those of the households.


Survey items

  The survey consisted of the following items:

(a) Family account book

  • Item-wise amounts of receipt or disbursement
  • Types of goods purchased

(b)Yearly income and savings questionnaire

  • Yearly income and type
  • Balance of deposits and life insurance
  • Premiums paid and current values of stocks, trusts, and shares
  • Balance of monthly and yearly installments paid toward the purchase of dwelling houses and land; construction, reconstruction, and extensions of buildings; and other items

(c) Durable goods questionnaire

  • Volume of ownership of about 30 major durable goods, including furniture, coolers and heaters, household equipment, reading and hobby-related equipment, and motor vehicles
  • Date of acquisition of about 30 of these items

(d) Pocket money book

  • Pocket money and its use

(e) Households questionnaire

  • Name
  • Relationship to the head of the household
  • Sex
  • Age
  • Marital status
  • Child-care leave
  • Whether working or not
  • Industry and occupation
  • School
  • Reason for the absence of family members not found in the household
  • Whether or not the households contain elderly persons in need of nursing
  • Places of residence of the children of the heads of households
  • Whether households had been affected by natural disasters
  • Total floor space, type of building, ownership status, facilities, presence or absence of land revenue, area of land, year of construction, and year of taking possession of land or dwelling
  • Housing and housing lots other than the present residence

Data processing

  The Bureau entrusted the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center.


Publication

  The results of the 2014 survey are published in consecutive provisional reports, followed by the final reports as listed below:

  • Income and Expenditures
  • Expenditure on Commodities
  • Places of Purchasing, Purchase Region
  • Major Durable Goods, Savings and Liabilities
  • Distribution of Households
  • Specific Household Groups
  • Households with Aged Persons
  • Family Assets
  • Reference Material

Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures such as pension plans, tax policies, and social welfare plans
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for elucidating and comprehensively analyzing the status of consumer households in terms of trends and ownership, and identifying differences between consumer households
  3. (c) To obtain basic data for calculating macroeconomic figures such as Gross Domestic Expenditure

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/zensho/index.htm


(3) Survey of Household Economy

Purpose

  The Survey of Household Economy (SHE), complementing the FIES, is intended to grasp conditions surrounding consumption in terms of a) products related to information and communication technology, and b) expensive products and services with low frequency of consumption.


Short history

  The implementation of this survey is based on the Prime Minister’s instructions issued in February 2000, namely, that “It is crucial to establish economic statistics that can adequately monitor movements in times of conspicuous changes in the economic structure. As such, further improvements should be made in order to swiftly and accurately grasp the actual conditions of consumption and investment.”

  From January 1 to February 28, 2001, the Bureau conducted the “Pilot Survey for Grasping Personal Consumption Trends in IT-related Consumption and Large Consumption.” After “the Council for the implementation of the new personal consumption survey” had considered the implementation of the survey, the survey was conducted as the “Survey of Household Economy” from October 2001 onward.


Reference date and period

  The SHE uses two questionnaires (A and B); the survey using Questionnaire B covers one year, while that using Questionnaire A refers to the first month of the survey.


Coverage

  The survey unit is the households in the entire area of Japan. The following households are, however, excluded as inappropriate households:

  1. (a) One-person student households
  2. (b) Inpatients in hospitals, inmates of reformatory institutions, etc
  3. (c) Households which manage restaurants, hotels, boarding houses or dormitories, sharing their dwellings
  4. (d) Households which serve meals to the boarders even though not managing boarding houses as an occupation
  5. (e) Households with four or more living-in employees
  6. (f) Households whose heads are absent for a long time (three months or more)
  7. (g) Foreigner households

Sampling

  This survey employs a two-stage stratified sampling method, wherein the entire country is stratified according to region and city population. The primary sampling unit corresponds with the enumeration district (EDs) of the 2010 Population Census, and the secondary sampling unit is the household.

  The survey selects a total of 3,000 EDs and 10 households-including one one-person household-at random from each ED. The overall sample size is 30,000 households.


Survey organization

  The SHE is conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization

  The Bureau is in charge of planning and conducting this survey, including arranging for the required documents and supervising the survey work of the private survey agency.


Survey method

  The survey is entrusted to a private survey agency. Questionnaires are delivered to the households by enumerators. Either collection by enumerators or mail-in by the households is used to collect the questionnaires.

  Enumerators collect the questionnaires of the first, 6th and 10th months of the survey period after January 2013, and they were collected in the first and 6th months from April 2008 to December 2012.

  From January 2014, it is also possible for survey households to answer on the Internet.


Survey items

  The following items are surveyed:

(a) Questionnaire A

  • Items related to the household
  • Utilization of electronic money and reward services

(b) Questionnaire B

  • Items related to the household (changes from the previous month)
  • Monthly expenditure on expensive and infrequently purchased goods and services
  • Total monthly expenditure of the household
  • Use of the Internet related to consumption

Data processing

  The Bureau entrusts the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center. The results are tabulated as statistics for the following items:

  • Household characteristics
  • Use state related to electronic money
  • Monthly expenditure per household for expensive and infrequently purchased goods and services

Publication

  The results are published approximately a month-and-a-half after the survey month. The annual average figures are published in the “Annual Report on the Survey of Household Economy.”


Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain basic data for a variety of purposes, such as policy planning, econometric analysis
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for calculating macroeconomic figures such as Gross Domestic Expenditure and the Family Expenditure Index

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/joukyou/index.htm


(4) Retail Price Survey

  The survey consists of two parts: the “Trend Survey” that aims to clarify the monthly trend of prices, and the “Structural Survey” that aims to clarify, the price structure by region and store type.


Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/kouri/index.htm


(A)Retail Price Survey (Trend Survey)


Purpose

  The Retail Price Survey (RPS) is conducted on a nationwide basis to obtain data pertaining to the prices of commodities and services, which are important elements of consumer expenditure.


Short history

  The survey was started in 1950 as an authorized component of the Fundamental Statistics. Until 1961, the survey covered only urban areas, but since 1962, its coverage has been expanded to include rural areas. The number of items covered by this survey has also increased.


Survey date

  The survey comprises the price survey, the rent survey, and the lodging charge survey.

  For the price survey, the prices collected refer to the Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday of the week that includes the 12th day of the survey month. With regard to fresh foods and cut flowers, prices are collected three times a month-on the Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday of the weeks including the 5th, 12th, and 22nd day of the survey month.

  The days of reference for the rent survey include the Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday of the week containing the 12th day of the survey month.

  The days of reference for the lodging charge survey include the Friday and Saturday of the week containing the 5th day of the month.


Coverage

(a) Price survey

  The survey covers the retail prices of approximately 730 commodities and services at around 26,000 outlets in 167 municipalities, i.e., cities, towns, and villages.

(b) Rent survey

  The survey covers the monthly rents and total floor space of approximately 25,000 rental houses in which households reside in 167 municipalities.

(c) Lodging charge survey

  The survey covers the per-night accommodation charges at approximately 530 hotels, including Japanese-style inns in 101 municipalities.


Sampling

  The price and rent surveys are conducted in 167 selected municipalities, with reference to the economic sectors, prefectural populations, and geographical features, while the lodging charge survey is carried out in 101 municipalities selected from cities with prefectural governments and tourist spots.

(a) Price survey

  Around 590 price survey districts are chosen in the selected municipalities. The prices are collected from stores surveyed within the survey districts.

(b) Rent survey

  A total of 1,221 rent survey districts, equivalent to the EDs of the Population Census, are chosen by sampling with a probability proportional to size by the selected municipalities. The survey covers all the households residing in rental houses in the survey districts.

(c) Lodging charge survey

  The survey covers hotels and Japanese-style inns that have large numbers of guests in selected municipalities.


Survey organization

  The survey is conducted through the following channels:

(a) Survey by enumerators

Image of survey organization (Survey by enumerators)

(b) Survey by the prefectural authorities

Image of survey organization (Survey by the prefectural authorities)

(c) Survey by the Bureau

Image of survey organization (Survey by the Bureau)

  Prefectural officials who are designated as “supervisors” oversee the fieldwork of the enumerators and are responsible for collecting the prices of certain items. A total of 131 supervisors and 744 enumerators are appointed for the RPS; the enumerators are appointed in each sample city, town, and village.


Survey method

(a) Survey by enumerators

  Before starting the survey, enumerators receive data pertaining to the survey items and their specifications from the Bureau. Subsequently, the enumerators visit outlets or households, collect prices through interviews, and record them using portable equipment such as personal digital assistants (PDAs). After entering the collected prices into PDAs, the enumerators send the data to the Bureau through the telecommunication lines of their homes on the designated days.

(b) Survey by prefectural authorities

  Prefectural officials survey prices through interviews.

(c) Survey by the Bureau

  The Bureau officials survey prices through interviews.


Survey items

  The survey covers the prices of approximately 530 goods and services, after designating detailed common specifications and units for individual items sold throughout the country. The prices collected are the normal retail prices, thus excluding temporarily reduced prices due to events such as clearance sales.

(a) Price survey

  The survey covers retail prices of commodities and services.

[Items surveyed by enumerators]

  • Food, alcoholic beverages, domestic utensils, etc., which consumers usually purchase in their residential districts and the prices of which vary by district
  • Clothing, electrical appliances, etc., which consumers usually purchase in their representative commercial areas or in large retail stores of cities, towns, and villages and the prices of which differ from stores to store
  • Seasonal goods, recreational goods, etc., the prices of which vary little between stores and districts as well as movie admission fees, forwarding charges, gasoline, etc., the prices of which are surveyed in each sample city, town, and village, irrespective of the survey district

[Items surveyed by the prefectural governments]

  Water charges, hospital charges, etc., the prices of which are almost uniform in each prefecture or city, town, and village

[Items surveyed by the Bureau]

  Railway fares, electricity, etc., the prices of which are uniform nationwide or within a region

(b) Rent survey

  The survey covers monthly rents and the total floor space of rental properties.

  • Private housing rents are surveyed by the enumerators.
  • Public housing rents managed by a prefecture, municipality, prefectural housing corporation or city housing corporation are surveyed by the prefectural governments.
  • Housing rents managed by the Urban Renaissance Agency are surveyed by the Bureau.

(c) Lodging charges survey

  The survey collects the accommodation charges for two persons for one night on a weekday and on the day before a holiday, which are then converted to charges per person.

  • The prefectural governments survey the lodging charges for one night with two meals or one night with breakfast on a weekday and on the day before a holiday in establishments operated by the private sector.
  • The Bureau surveys the lodging charges for one night with two meals in establishments operated by the public sector.

Data processing

The Bureau entrusts the following tabulation to the National Statistics Center:

  • Retail prices of commodities and services
  • Rents per month and total floor space
  • Lodging charges

Publication

  The survey results are released on the Friday of the week containing the 26th day of each month, in principle; these include the retail prices for the preceding month in cities with prefectural governments and populations of 150,000 or more and in the Ku-area of Tokyo (23 wards that make up the center of Tokyo) as well as the nationwide uniform prices and charges for the current month.

  The survey results are published in the “Annual Report on the Retail Price Survey.”


Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To establish a standard for the automatic revision of pension levels
  2. (b) To establish a standard to calculate correction factors reflecting trends in consumer prices, such as the price of land and so on.
  3. (c) To obtain basic data for calculating the CPI
  4. (d) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures such as monetary policies, social welfare plans, and public utility charges

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/kouri/doukou/index.htm


(B)Retail Price Survey (Structural Survey)

Purpose

  The Retail Price Survey (Structural Survey) aims to annually clarify prices by region, store type, etc., by conducting three types of survey: (1) a survey on price differences between regions; (2) a survey on prices by store type; and (3) a survey on prices by specification. The survey has been conducted since January 2013.


Short history

  The price structure had been grasped by the National Survey of Prices conducted once every five years. However, as changes in the consumption and distribution structure had accelerated, it became difficult to understand the changes in the price structure accurately by conducting a statistical survey on a 5-year cycle. A survey to annually check the price differences between regions and prices by store type and specification, which had been conducted in the National Survey of Prices, was added to the Retail Price Survey as “Structural Survey,” while the name of the existing Retail Price Survey was changed to “Trend Survey.” It was decided that the National Survey of Prices would no longer be conducted.


Survey date

  The survey on price differences between regions is conducted on Wednesday, Thursday or Friday of the week that contains the 12th day of each odd month.

  The survey on prices by store type is conducted on Wednesday, Thursday or Friday of the week that contains the 12th day of each even month.

  The survey on prices by specification (Tokyo Special-wards Area) is conducted on Wednesday, Thursday or Friday of the week that contains the 12th day of each even month.


Coverage

  The survey covers 135 cities in total, including 47 prefectural capitals (including the Tokyo Special-wards Area), and 88 non-capital cities in the country which are not covered by the Trend Survey (the former Retail Price Survey).


Sampling

  The entire areas of cities surveyed are designated as price survey areas. A predetermined number of outlets are selected for each survey area in order of the sales amount by survey item (if it is difficult to select them by sales amount, in order of management scale based on the number of employees, sales floor space, etc.) and are designated as survey outlets.


Survey organization

  The survey is conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization


  Prefectural officials who are designated as “supervisors” oversee the fieldwork of the enumerators and are responsible for collecting the prices of certain items. A total of 131 supervisors and 135 enumerators are appointed for “Structural Survey”; the enumerators are appointed in each sample city.


Survey method

  Enumerators visit the outlets to be surveyed in the area in their charge to collect retail prices of products by interviews with the representative person of each outlet, and enter the data into their terminals.

  After they finish entering all the data including prices in the area in their charge, they send the collected data to the Bureau on an appointed day. All data sent will be reviewed by the Bureau and prefectures. Before conducting the survey, enumerators have received, from the Bureau, various up-to-date information needed for the survey to be conducted in the month, such as survey items and specification information, via their terminals.


Survey items

  Survey items are classified into two categories as follows:

  • Items that consumers purchase mainly in their neighborhood, and that are subject to the Structural Survey, such as food, household consumables, etc.
  • Items that consumers purchase mainly in representative commercial districts or large-scale stores in each municipality, and that are subject to the Structural Survey, such as hair dressing and beauty products, etc.

Data processing

The Bureau entrusts the checking of the survey’s data to the National Statistics Center, and tabulates the checked survey data.


Publication

  The survey results are compiled by the Bureau and are released in principle by June in the year following the survey year.


Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures such as social welfare policies and economic policies
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for other price statistics
  3. (c) To obtain basic data for academic research and price-related analyses

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/kouri/kouzou/index.htm


(5) National Survey of Prices [1967-2007]

Purpose

  The National Survey of Prices was a large-scale quinquennial survey that aims to study the actual price differentials among outlets, brands, regions, etc. by surveying not only the prices of goods and services that were important objects of consumer spending but also the factors that influence price decisions, including the types and locations of outlets.

[Comparison with the RPS]

  Although the monthly Retail Price Survey (RPS) covered a similar aspect, its main object is to reveal price trends and obtain the basic data for the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Since the sample size was as small as about 30,000, the monthly survey was not appropriate for conducting detailed cross-section analyses. In contrast, the National Survey of Prices was designed to sample about 137,000 outlets, thus enabling detailed structural analyses based on various price differentials, such as attributes of outlets, brands, regions, and so on.


Short history

  The survey was initiated in 1967 and was carried out in 1971, 1974, and 1977. After 1977, the survey interval was extended to five years, and the 2007 survey was the 10th. The survey method has essentially remained unchanged since its inception.


Survey date

  The survey was carried out as of Wednesday, November 21, 2007. The following explanations are based on the 2007 survey.


Coverage

  The survey covered retail outlets, establishments serving food and, drinks, service establishments, etc. in the municipalities surveyed.


Sampling

(a) Municipalities

  The survey covered all cities with a population of 100,000 or more, including the wards (ku) in Tokyo, based on the results of the Population Census as of October 1, 2005. The survey also covered 410 selected municipalities with a population of less than 100,000.

(b) Retail outlets, establishments serving food and drinks, service establishments, etc.

  [Retail outlets]

  The survey selected approximately 137,000 outlets from the municipalities surveyed and grouped them into two types: large-scale outlets and small-scale outlets, depending on the total sales floor space, industrial classification, and type of outlet.

  1. Large-scale outlets (with sales floor space of 1,000 m2 or more)
    Every outlet was surveyed, in principle (approximately 12,000 outlets).
  2. Small-scale outlets (with sales floor space of less than 1,000 m2)
    A total of 2,779 survey areas were selected from the municipalities surveyed, and about 125,000 outlets (45 outlets per area) were randomly selected from these areas.

  The outlets were selected from the preliminary list of outlets used in the 2007 Census of Commerce (conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry).

[Establishments serving food and drinks, service establishments]

  The Bureau first selected establishments from the 2006 Establishment and Enterprise Census (conducted by the MIC) by industrial classification; thereafter, each municipality selected the establishments to be surveyed from the above establishments.

  Since it was difficult to select the survey items based on the establishments’ industrial classification, the concerned municipality selected the establishments to be surveyed using the materials and data of related organizations. Approximately 65,000 establishments were surveyed nationwide.

[Companies providing wide-area services, online/mail-order sales companies, hotels, and golf courses]

  About 2,200 companies providing wide-area services and online/mail-order sales companies, about 400 hotels and ryokan (Japanese-style inns), and about 400 golf courses were selected nationwide.


Survey organization

  The survey was conducted through the following channels:

(a) Retail outlets

Image of survey organization (Retail outlets)

(in case of some chain stores)

Image of survey organization (in case of some chain stores)

(b) Establishments serving food and drinks, service establishments

Image of survey organization (Establishments serving food and drinks, service establishments)

(c) Companies providing wide-area services, online/mail-order sales companies, hotels, and golf courses

Image of survey organization (Companies providing wide-area services, online/mail-order sales companies, hotels, and golf courses)


Survey method

(a) Retail outlets

  The enumerators delivered the questionnaires to the designated outlets. Every outlet representative was requested to fill in two types of questionnaires: one requesting basic information on the outlet and the other requesting the prices of commodities sold there. Some outlets were also requested to report prices every day in the week of the survey and the lowest prices in the month for certain items to obtain the discount prices. The prices to report were designated for each outlet according to their industrial classification and the type of outlet. After the representatives of the outlets completed the questionnaires, the enumerators collected them.

  The Bureau surveyed the company headquarters of some chain stores providing wide-area services. The Bureau mailed questionnaires to the company headquarters (including electronic questionnaires stored on electronic media) and collected the completed forms. In addition, the companies were able to use the Online Survey System of the Inter-Ministry Information System for Official Statistics (IMISOS).

(b) Establishments serving food and drinks, service establishments

  Municipal officials interviewed the representatives of the designated establishments to complete the questionnaires for service charges and fees.

(c) Companies providing wide-area services, online/mail-order sales companies, hotels, and golf courses

  The survey was conducted using two methods. With regard to companies providing wide-area services, officials of the Bureau interviewed the representatives of the designated establishments and completed the relevant questionnaires for service charges and fees. With regard to online/mail-order sales companies, officials of the Bureau mailed the relevant questionnaires for online/mail-order sales and those for online/mail-order sales prices to the designated companies, and their representatives completed these questionnaires and mailed them back to the Bureau. In addition to submitting the completed questionnaires by mail, the representatives of the companies could make use of the Online Survey System of the IMISOS.


Survey items

The survey covered the following items:

(a) Items concerning the basic attributes of outlets

  • Name of outlet
  • Type of outlet
  • Number of persons engaged
  • Items related to management
  • Discount and privilege services
  • Presence of online/mail-order sales
  • Main supplier of goods

(b) Items concerning prices of goods and services

  The survey selected 180 items from among the goods and services that were regarded as important to consumers and collected the ordinary prices of these items on Wednesday, November 21, 2007-the survey date. The survey also collected the lowest price during the preceding month and daily prices from Thursday, November 15 to Wednesday, November 21 for 20 of the 180 items.

  The survey items were divided into three groups as follows:

a) Items surveyed at retail outlets: 141 items

b) Items surveyed at establishments serving food and drinks, service establishments, and companies providing wide-area services: 39 items

c) Items surveyed at online/mail-order companies: 24 items


Data processing

   The Bureau entrusts the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center. The results were tabulated as follows:

(a) Average prices and distribution of prices by basic attribute of outlets

  • Retail outlet prices and online/mail-order prices
  • Regular prices and sale prices
  • Service charges and fees

(b) Number of outlets and establishments by basic attribute of outlets

(c) Regional difference index of prices


Publication

The reports of the 2007 survey were published in the following four volumes:

  • Volume 1 Outline of the Survey Methods ……………………………………  March 2009
  • Volume 2 Results for Regional Difference Index of Prices ………………… March 2009
  • Volume 3 Results for Outlet Prices ……………………………………………… July 2009
                    Part 1 Retail Outlet Prices
                    Part 2 Sale Prices
                    Part 3 Online/Mail-order Prices
  • Volume 4 Structure of Prices in Japan (Explanatory Report) ……………………… 2009

  In addition, Internet users could access all the detailed statistical tables on the Internet, which were available in the form of electronic records, for analysis and processing.


Use of the survey results (major example)

  1. (d) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures such as social welfare policies and economic policies
  2. (e) To obtain basic data for other price statistics
  3. (f) To obtain basic data for academic research and price-related analyses

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/zenbutu/index.htm


(6) Consumer Price Index

Purpose

  The Consumer Price Index (CPI) aims to measure the average price change in the purchases of goods and services by households nationwide and reflects changes in the cost of goods and services purchased in a fixed market basket. The CPI is one of the key indicators of current economic conditions and is reported monthly at the cabinet meeting.


Short history

  The compilation of the CPI began in 1946. In those days, both price data and weight data were obtained from the Consumer Price Survey (CPS), the predecessor of the Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES). The Fisher formula was used to compute the CPI.

  In 1950, the CPS was replaced by the FIES and the Retail Price Survey (RPS), which together form the fundamental data source for the present CPI. Computation of the CPI based on the two surveys using a Laspeyres formula commenced in 1952, with 1951 considered as the base period.

  Since 1955, the base period of the CPI has been renewed every five years. Following the extension of FIES and RPS coverage from urban areas to the entire country, the CPI coverage was also extended from 1965 onward.


Reference period

  The CPI is calculated as a set of indices with the annual average price of the calendar year 2010 regarded as 100, using the expenditure weights of the calendar year 2010.


Scope of the index

  As the CPI is designed to measure price changes that affect the consumption lives of households, its scope covers household living expenditures (although religious contributions, donations, monetary gifts, other obligatory fees, and remittances are excluded from the scope of the CPI).

  Consequently, the CPI covers neither non-living expenditures (such as income taxes and social insurance premiums) nor disbursements other than expenditures (such as savings, security purchases, and property purchases of land and houses).

  As with the housing cost of owner-occupied dwellings, the survey applied the rental equivalence approach (imputed rent).


Method of computation

  The following explanation refers to the CPI with the 2010 base. The method of computing the CPI has remained more or less unchanged over the years.

  Computing the CPI requires two sets of data: prices and weights. Prices are obtained mainly from the RPS, and weights mainly from the FIES. The weights are based on consumer expenditures in 2010. Those expenditures that are not regarded as consumption-related are excluded (e.g., property purchases, direct tax and social security payments, transfers of money to other households). Weights are assigned to the 588 (as of January 2014) items representing goods and services consumed by consumer households, as well as to 167 municipalities representing the entire country.

  Generally, prices are averaged per municipality per month. The index is calculated as the base-year-weighted arithmetic mean of prices relative to base prices (i.e., the Laspeyres formula) as shown below.

Method of computation


Indices compiled

  The following indices are compiled at the National Statistics Center to meet various requirements:

(a) Indices by basic classification

  All-item and sub-indexes for basic expenditure groups and geographical areas

(b) Indices by goods and services classification

  Sub-indexes for goods and services groups

(c) Indices aggregated based on baskets of specific household groups and indices by characteristics of items

  • Index for all households, including one-person households
  • Index by annual income of workers’ households
  • Index for retired elderly households
  • Index by age of the head of the household (yearly)
  • Index by occupation of the head of the household (yearly)
  • Index by tenure of dwelling (yearly)
  • Index by elasticity of living expenditure
  • Index by purchasing frequency

(d) Supplementary indices

  • Chained Laspeyres index
  • Mid-year basket index (yearly)

  * Note: The official CPI refers to households comprising two or more persons.


Publication

  The monthly consumer price index is released, in principle, at 8:30 a.m. on the Friday of the week that contains the 26th day of each month. On this day, the index figures of the preceding month are released for the entire country, as are the preliminary figures of the current month for the 23 wards that make up the centre of Tokyo. The average index figures for the calendar year and the fiscal year are released with monthly figures for December and March, respectively. The following reports are published:

  • Preliminary Report (available on the aforementioned day)
  • Annual Report on the CPI

Use of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To establish a standard for the automatic revision of pension levels
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for administrative policies and measures such as monetary policies, social welfare plans, and public utility charges

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/cpi/index.htm


5. Social statistics


                       Name

     Cycle

Conducted since

Size

Survey on Time Use and Leisure

Activities (F)

Quinquennial

 

1976

 

      83,000 households

      200,000 persons (2011)

  (F):Fundamental Statistical Surveys



(1) Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities

Purpose

  The Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities aims to obtain comprehensive data on daily patterns of time allocation and leisure activities.

  This survey provides statistics that cannot be obtained from any of the other surveys, all of which focus almost exclusively on the economic aspects of living. The statistics obtained from this survey make it possible to observe the lifestyles of various groups and their preferences for certain activities over others, which may improve the interpretation and understanding of various social and economic phenomena. This survey also provides important background information on the economic conditions in Japan.


Short history

  The survey was first carried out in 1976 and has been conducted every five years. The 8th survey was conducted in 2011.

  Since the 2001 survey, in addition to Questionnaire A (pre-coding system), which takes the same form as the questionnaires in the former surveys, Questionnaire B (after-coding system) has been introduced to obtain more detailed results concerning people’s time allocation.


Reference date and period

  The reference date for the 2011 survey was October 20 for the basic characteristics of persons and households. For data on time use, however, reference dates have been selected from several days including the reference date, because the pattern of time use varies according to the day of the week. For this reason, the sample of the 2011 survey was divided into several sub-samples, and the respondents for each sub-sample were asked to report their time use on two consecutive days during the period from October 15 to 23.


Coverage

  This survey covered the household members of approximately 83,000 households living in the sampled dwellings in the designated enumeration districts (EDs); these households were selected by the prefectural governors in the manner prescribed by the Bureau. The following persons, however, were excluded from the survey:

  1. (a) Foreign diplomatic and consular corps (including their family and party members)
  2. (b) Foreign military personnel or civilian employees (including their family)
  3. (c) The Self-Defense Force personnel living in barracks or vessels
  4. (d) Prisoners or persons in reformatories
  5. (e) Persons living in social welfare facilities
  6. (f) In-patients of hospital or clinics
  7. (g) Persons living on a boat

Sampling

  The sample was selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method, with the primary sampling unit being the EDs of the Population Census and the secondary sampling unit being the household.

  First, the entire country was divided into regions of 47 prefectures, from which a total of 6,900 sample EDs were selected. Approximately 83,000 households were selected from lists of households in the selected EDs; the enumerators prepare these lists before the survey. All persons aged 10 years and above in the sample households were requested to respond to the survey, which means a total of approximately 200,000 persons.


Survey organization

  The 2011 survey was conducted through the following channels:

Image of survey organization


Survey method

  The enumerators delivered the questionnaires to each survey household, collected the completed questionnaires, and interviewed the household members as necessary.

  The questionnaires were completed either by household members aged 10 years and above or by the head of the household, who also answered questions asked by the enumerators.

  In addition, in the EDs designated by the Bureau, households could fill in the questionnaires via an electronic information processing system with telecommunication lines connecting their own computers with those of the Bureau.


Survey items

  The 2011 survey covered the following topics:

  • Time use over a single day
  • Participation in leisure activities during the past year
  • Frequency of participation in leisure activities during the past year

  Two questionnaires were used to record the time use during a single day: Questionnaire A adopts a pre-coding method, while Questionnaire B was designed to elucidate more details regarding time use (via the diary or after-coding method). Questionnaire A was used for approximately 6,500 of the 6,900 EDs, and Questionnaire B was used for the remaining 400 EDs.

  The survey also identified several characteristics of individuals and households.

  To obtain data on the time use for each day, the enumerators delivered schedules for recording time use every quarter of an hour to the respondents. Subsequently, the enumerators collected the completed schedules, along with other questionnaires concerning the respondents’ participation in leisure activities.


Data processing

  The Bureau entrusted the survey’s data processing to the National Statistics Center. The results were tabulated as statistics for the following characteristics:

  Characteristics of individuals:

  • Sex/Age/Marital status
  • Life stage
  • Usual economic activity/Employment status/Occupation/Annual income of the individual

  Characteristics of households:

  • Family type of household
  • Usual economic activities of a married couple
  • Annual income of the household
  • Age of the household’s youngest child

Publication

  A report containing the 2011 survey results were published in 2013; the report covered the following characteristics:

(a) Report of Questionnaire A

  • Time use results for Japan
  • Leisure activities results for Japan
  • Time use results for prefectures
  • Leisure activities results for prefectures
  • Activities by time of day-results for Japan and by prefecture
  • Average time of main activities-results for Japan and by prefecture
  • Summary results and analyses

(b) Report of Questionnaire B

  • Time use by detailed activity coding-results for Japan

Uses of the survey results (major examples)

  1. (a) To obtain basic data to assist in the formulation of policies aimed at maintaining a vital aging society, improving the childcare environment, facilitating gender equality, promoting work life balance, etc., while taking into account the current social background (e.g., an aging society with fewer children and diversification of lifestyles)
  2. (b) To obtain basic data for academic research in the fields of social science, domestic science, and cultural economics

Website

http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/shakai/index.htm

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