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2. One-person Workers’ Household Income and Expenditures of the under 30 Years Old Age Group

(1) Income and living expenditures

A. Income

Average income for the under 30 years old age group among one-person workers’ households (young, one-person workers’ households) for the month from October to November 2004 was ¥269,282 for men and ¥228,054 for women, respective nominal decreases of 0.4% and 1.0% compared to 1999 and the first decreases since surveys began in 1959, but in real terms they were respective increases of 2.9% (annualized rate of 0.6%) and 2.3% (0.5%). Looking at yearly real rate of increase/decrease in income from 1974, they decreased for men from 6.5% in 1974 to 1.6% in 1979 and 0.8% in 1984, rising a bit to 1.4% in 1989 before again falling to 1.1% in 1994, 1.0% in 1999, and 0.6% in 2004. Women’s rate of increase exceeded men’s at 9.0% in 1974, but lagged behind the male increase rate at 0.9% in 1979 and 0.6% in 1984, exceeding the male rate of increase at 3.7% in 1989 before declining to 0.9% in 1994, 0.6% in 1999, and 0.5% in 2004. Disposable income was ¥231,851 for men and ¥195,902 for women, respective nominal increase of 2.6% and 0.8% compared to 1999 and respective real increase of 6.0% (annualized 1.2% rate) and 4.1% (0.8%). (Table I-3, Figure I-5)

B. Living expenditures

Men had living expenditures of ¥178,904, a nominal 1.9% decrease compared to 1999, and women ¥173,432, or 2.7% increase, with this being the first decrease for men since surveys began in 1959. In real terms, however, it was 1.3% (0.3% yearly rate) increase for men and 6.1% (1.2%) for women. Reviewing trends in annual rates of real living expenditure charges from 1974, they decreased for men from an yearly 5.5% in 1974 to 0.7% in 1979, 0.2% in 1984, 0.4% in 1989, and 0.3% in 1994, climbing a bit to 0.8% in 1999 before falling again to 0.3% in 2004. Women’s increase rates exceeded men’s at an yearly 7.7% in 1974, 0.9% in 1979, 1.5% in 1984, and 3.0% in 1989, but decreased for the first time since surveys started to -0.6% in 1994 and, while increasing to 0.4% in 1999, the increase rate lagged that for men. It again exceeded the male increase rate at 1.2% in 2004. (Table I-3, Figure I-6)

C. Average Propensity to Consume

The average propensity to consume consistently decreased for men, from 92.3% in 1969 to 77.2% in 2004. For women, on the other hand, after declining in 1974 from 90.3% in 1969, it subsequently continued to fall from 1989 to 1999 after rising in 1979 and in 1984, but again rose to 88.5% in 2004. Compared by sex, the average propensity to consume was higher for men in 1969 and 1974, but has been higher for women since 1979, with women topping men by 11.3 points in 2004. (Table I-3, Figure I-7)

Table I-3 Average Real Monthly Income and Living Expenditures Trends

for Young, One-person Workers’ Households, by Sex

Table I-3 Average Real Monthly Income and Living Expenditures Trends for Young, One-person Workers’ Households, by Sex

Figure I-5 Trends in Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Average Actual Monthly Income and Yearly Real Rate of Increase/Decrease by Sex

Figure I-5 Trends in Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Average Actual Monthly Income and Yearly Real Rate of Increase/Decrease by Sex

Figure I-6 Trends in Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Average Living Expenditures and Yearly Real Rate of Increase/Decrease by Sex

Figure I-6 Trends in Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Average Living Expenditures and Yearly Real Rate of Increase/Decrease by Sex

Figure I-7 Trends in Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Average Propensity to Consume by Sex

Figure I-7 Trends in Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Average Propensity to Consume by Sex

2) Characteristics of Composition of Expenditures

A. Itemized expenditures overview

Looking at young, one-person male workers’ households’ line item living expenditures by share, eating out and other food-related expenditures accounted for the highest amount at 24.6% overall, followed by transportation and communication expenditures such as private transportation and mobile phone charges at 19.7%, 18.7% for housing costs, which mainly consisted of rent, and 15.3% for books, games, and other reading and recreation activities. Housing was the largest expenditure at 22.3% overall for women, followed by 17.8% for food, 13.9% for social expenses, toilet articles and other living expenditure, and 13.1% for transportation and communication. Reviewing trends in line items’ shares of living expenditures, food has consistently fallen since 1974 for men and fell to 17.8% in 2004 for women, where it had previously remained more or less at the 20% mark, at 20.3% in 1989, 19.9% in 1994, and 20.0% in 1999. In 2004, the share of food consumed by men fell by 18.8 points and by 11.7 points for women compared to the share figure in 1974. Housing costs consistently rose for both men and women up to 1999, from 4.4% for men and 6.4% for women in 1974, but rose 4.1 points for men and fell 1.9 points for women in 2004 compared to 1999. Clothes and footwear costs fell fairly consistently for both men and women up to 1999, but rose for both in 2004, climbing 0.1 points for men and 3.4 points for women compared to 1999. Transportation and communication costs were 9.2% for men and 6.8% for women in 1974 and subsequently exhibited a rising tendency, but fell 0.5 of a point for men and 0.1 of a point for women in 2004 compared to 1999. (Figure I-8)

Figure I-8 Trends in Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Living Expenditures by Sex Classified by Expenses

Figure I-8 Trends in Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Living Expenditures by Sex Classified by Expenses

Figure I-8 Trends in Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Living Expenditure by Sex Classified by Expenses

B. Food

Eating out was the line expenditure that accounted for the highest percentage of food expenditures for both men and women, amounting to 52.5% overall for men and 43.2% for women. Next, men and women alike spent a lot on cooked foods, which accounted for 14.8% of the whole for men and 13.4% for women. After cooked foods, men and women both spent a lot on beverages, which accounted for 10.0% of overall food costs for men and 8.4% for women. Finally, food ingredients such as cereals, fish and shellfish, meat, dairy products and eggs, vegetables and seaweeds, and fruits amounted to 11.2% of overall food expenses for men and 21.2% for women. In contrast to declining shares for dairy products and eggs, alcoholic beverages, and charges for board for both sexes compared to 1999, men and women spent more on cooked foods, beverages and eating out. Seen by trends since 1984, eating out’s share was 75.7% for men in 1984 and 51.6% for women, but after exhibiting broad respective decreases of over 10 points to 62.7% and 39.0% up to 1989 the trend has been at around 50% levels for men and around 40% for women. Cooked foods ratios have continued to climb for both men and women, from 1.5% for men and 3.8% for women in 1984. Additionally, the portion for beverages has consistently risen since 1984, when it was 2.2% for men and 3.6% for women, to 10.0% for men and 8.4% for women in 2004. The amount for food ingredients was 6.9% for men and 26.0% for women in 1984 and has since risen consistently for men and, while rising to 27.9% for women in 1989, fell to 25.0% in both 1994 and 1999 and to 21.2% in 2004. Seen by sex disparity, the gap for food ingredients shrank from 19.1 points in 1984 to 10.0 points in 2004. (Figure I-9, Table I-4)

Figure I-9 Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Itemized Food Expense by Sex

Figure I-9 Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Itemized Food Expense by Sex

Table I-4 Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Food Expense Ratios by Sex Classified by Expenses

Table I-4 Young, One-person Workers’ Households’ Food Expense Ratios by Sex Classified by Expenses

3. One-person Household Income and Expenditures of the 65 Years or Older Age Group

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