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CHAPTER 26 CULTURE
This chapter covers culture-related occupations, cultural facilities and cultural assets, publication and mass communication, sports, entertainments and parks, religion, time use and leisure activities.
The section of culture-related occupations contains statistics on the persons engaged in such occupations. The source of data is "Population Census" conducted by the Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (see "2 Population and Households").
The section of cultural facilities and cultural assets contains statistics on cultural facilities such as museums and libraries, and cultural assets. Main sources of data are "Social Education Survey" (see "25 Education") and "Science Information Infrastructure Statistics of Colleges and Universities" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, "Yearbook of National Diet Library" by the National Diet Library, and "Number of Cultural Asset Designations" by the Agency for Cultural Affairs.
The section of publication and mass communications contains statistics concerning books and magazines, newspapers, as well as radio and television broadcasting. The main sources of data are "Publication Yearbook" by Shuppan News Co., Ltd. ?White Paper on Information and Communication in Japan? by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, "NHK Yearbook" by NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute.
The section of sports, recreations and parks contains statistics on recreational industries, sports facilities, movies, travels, advertisement, household expenditure for education and recreation, and parks. The main sources of data are "Current Survey of Selected Service Industries" by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, "Survey of Facilities for Physical Education and Sports" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, "Activities of Major Travel Agencies" by the Japan Tourism Agency, "Annual Report on the Family Income and Expenditure Survey" by the Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (see "22 Family Income and Expenditure"), "Area of Natural Parks" and "Visitors to Natural Parks" by the Ministry of the Environment, and "Report of City Park Development Status by Prefecture" by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.
The section of religion contains statistics on religious juridical persons and other religious organisations, clergymen and adherents. The source of data is "Religious Yearbook" by the Agency for Cultural Affairs.
The section of time use and leisure activities contains statistics on average time spent on various daily activities, participation rates in leisure and learning activities and sports. The main sources of data are "Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities" by the Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, "National Time Use Survey" by the NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute and "White Paper on Leisure" by Japan Productivity Center.
Survey on Science Information Infrastructure
This survey is conducted annually, as of 1 May, by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technologies with the aim to clarify and improve the conditions of the scientific information infrastructure, such as libraries, computer facilities, networks of universities. This survey was originated as the Survey of University Libraries in 1966, and revised to the present form by adding surveys on computer facilities and networks in 2005.
The survey covers all national, public and private universities in Japan.
For the survey of university libraries, the central library or its branch of a university, or a library attached to a faculty, institute, etc. are treated as separate units.
Cultural properties comprise tangible cultural properties, intangible cultural properties, folk-cultural properties, monuments, cultural scenery, and groups of historical buildings, as prescribed by the Cultural Properties Protection Act. The statistics presented in this Yearbook are the number of cultural properties designated or selected as those of special importance by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in accordance with the Cultural Properties Protection Act, and the number of cultural properties designated by prefectures, shi (cities), ku (wards), machi (towns) and mura (villages) in accordance with their own regulations.
Books and magazines
The source of data is "Publishing Yearbook" compiled annually by Shuppan News Co., Ltd.
The statistics presented in this Yearbook are the number of issues of books newly published during the year (including re-editions of books which had not been contained in the "Publishing Yearbook") and magazines. The books covered are those donated to the National Diet Library and those selected on the basis of the sales record at the principal book distributors, etc. Magazines include academic magazines, those issued by the government, and some specialized magazines, as well as those sold on the market. They are classified according to the Nippon Decimal Classification (N.D.C.).
Statistics presented in this Yearbook relate to the circulation of daily newspapers as of October every year, which is based on the reports submitted to the Japan Newspaper Publishers and Editors Association. A total of 117 different newspapers were covered for 2014; among which 37 newspapers are sets of morning and evening editions; 67 are morning papers; and 13 are evening papers.
The data on subscription are based on the "Statistical Abstract of Receiving Contracts" compiled by NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation), and the data on broadcasting hours, etc. are based on "NHK Yearbook" and "Japan Commercial Broadcasting Yearbook" by the National Association of Commercial Broadcasters in Japan.
Subscribers are those who have made receiving contracts with NHK installing apparatus that can receive the broadcasts of NHK in accordance with the provisions of the Broadcasting Act. Data are compiled on the basis of reports from each broadcasting station. As the reception of the satellite broadcasting became chargeable from 1 August 1989, the receiving contracts comprise ordinary contracts, colour contracts and satellite broadcasting contracts (satellite ordinary contracts, satellite colour contracts and satellite special contracts). In October 2007, the ordinary contract and the colour contract were consolidated into the terrestrial contract. The contract for radio receiving was abolished in fiscal 1968.
Survey on Activities of Selected Service Industries
The survey has been conducted monthly since December 1987 with the purpose of obtaining basic data on the management conditions of selected service industries for the assessment of short term business trend and for the policy-making concerning industrial structure, small and medium enterprises and service industries.
The survey covers the share of the sampled establishments and enterprises being about 70 percent of the industry in Japan (or specific region) in the major enterprises (or establishments) of the specified service industries.
Survey on Facilities for Physical Education and Sports
This survey was initiated in 1969 to clarify the actual situation of nationwide athletic and sport facilities, under the name "Social Athletic Survey" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and it has been conducted, and it has been conducted every five or six years.
The 2008 survey comprises Survey of School Athletic Facilities, Survey of Workplace Athletic Facilities, Survey of Athletic Facilities of Universities, Colleges and Technical Colleges, Survey of Opening of Public School's Athletic Facilities to the Public, and Survey of the Athletic Facilities Attached to the Public Social Education Facilities. The Survey of Athletic Facilities of Universities, Colleges and Technical Colleges was conducted at all the universities, colleges and technical colleges, the Survey of Workplace Athletic Facilities was conducted at all the establishments, and other surveys were conducted at municipal boards of education, on a complete count basis.
Data on public sports facilities and private sports facilities are obtained from the Social Education Survey (Fundamental Statistical Survey).
Parks comprise natural parks designated under the Natural Park Act, city parks provided under the City Park Act, and the national gardens which were transferred as national properties from the Imperial Household and opened to the public as parks. Data on the natural parks and the national gardens are obtained from "Survey on Users of Natural Parks, etc." and other materials provided by the Ministry of the Environment, and those on city parks, from "Report of City Park Development Status by Prefecture " by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.
Survey on Visitors to Natural Parks, etc.
The survey was first conducted in 1950 for national parks by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (now, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare). In 1965 and thereafter, the survey also covered prefectural parks. In 1971, the responsibility for the survey was transferred to the Environment Agency (now, the Ministry of the Environment), which has been conducting it every year.
The survey collects data on the number of visitors during the year, etc. based on reports from prefectures.
Survey on Religion
This survey has been conducted annually since 1949 by the Agency for Cultural Affairs with a purpose to investigate number of religious judicial persons, etc., and to obtain basic materials for administration on religious matters such as a list of religious judicial persons and religious organisations.
For comprehensive religious juridical persons, independent religious judicial persons and non-juridical comprehensive religious organisations under the jurisdiction of the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, reports are collected from the respective religious juridical person or organisation, and for comprehensive religious juridical person and independent religious judicial persons under the jurisdiction of the governors of prefectures, reports are collected from the governors of prefectures. On the basis of these reports, statistics on religious judicial persons, clergymen, adherents, etc. are compiled as of the end of the year.
Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities (Fundamental Statistical Survey)
This survey has been conducted every five years since 1976 in order to investigate the time use and leisure activities of Japanese people. The 2011 survey is the eighth in the series.
The 2011 survey was conducted by the self-enumeration method at 83,000 households in the selected enumeration districts of the 2005 Population Census. The reference date is 20 October. For the time use, each household member was requested to report the particulars of two consecutive days designated between 15 October and 23 October. Two types of questionnaires were used for time use. Questionnaire A is the pre-coded type, for which a respondent selects one of printed activities for each block of time. Questionnaire B is the post-coding type, for which a respondent describes time use particulars in his/her own words, and they are later classified at the tabulation stage.
National Time Use Survey
This survey has been conducted by Nippon Hoso Kyokai (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) every five years since 1960 with a purpose to examine the daily time allocations of people in order to make broadcasting programme better suited to daily lives of most people and also to provide basic data for wider users in this area. The survey was addressed to persons of 10 years and over, numbering 12,600 in 2005 and 7,200 in 2010, and referred to two consecutive days specified within the period from 11 to 24 October in the 2005 survey, and from 14 to 24 October in the 2010 survey. One of the distinctive features of this survey is that when a person does multiple actions at the same time, all the actions are recorded.
The figures on leisure activities are from ?White Paper on Leisure? annually published by Japan Productivity Center. This publication includes the survey results on people?s attitude to leisure and participation to leisure activities from 1979. The survey is conducted on a sample of 3,000 persons of 15-79 years of age residing in cities with 50 thousand or more residents. Although up to 2008 the survey was taken using self-administered questionnaires delivered by visiting, it is conducted utilizing the Internet from 2009.