Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Statistics Bureau

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Population Census

Explanation of Terms

- Population
- Land Area
- Age and Average Age
- Marital Status
- Nationality
- Labour Force Status
- Employment Status
- Industry
- Occupation
- Hours of Work
- Type of Household
- Household Members and Related Members
- Family Type of Household
- Mother-Child(ren) Households and Father-Child(ren) Households
- Aged-Single-Person Households and Aged-Couple Households
- Kind of Residence
- Tenure of Dwelling
- Area of Floor Space
- Type of Building
- Division of Area
- Densely Inhabited Districts
- Commuting Status of Household Members
- Place of Work or Schooling
- (Daytime Population and Nighttime Population)
- (Ratio of Daytime Population to Nighttime Population)
- Population in 2000 (readjusted) and Households in 2000 (readjusted)

 Population

  Population presented in this report is what is known as de jure population as described in "Population Enumerated in the Census" in "OUTLINE OF THE 2005 POPULATION CENSUS OF JAPAN".

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 Land Area

  The land areas of administrative divisions presented in this report are based on "Survey of the Land Area for Shi, Ku, Machi, and Mura of Japan, 2005" prepared by the Geographical Survey Institute, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. However, the land areas of some municipalities where their areas were not released in the results of the Survey due to undefinable boundaries were estimated by the Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.
  The land areas of DIDs were measured by the Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.

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 Age and Average Age

  Age refers to the age at the last birthday before 1 October 2005. For an infant who was born at 0:00 a.m. of 1 October 2005, his/her age is regarded as zero year old.

Average age is calculated as follows:
Average Age

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 Marital Status

  Marital status is classified into the following categories according to the actual state at the census date, whether the marriage has been registered or not.

Never married ...

"Never married" persons refer to those who had not yet married.

Married ...

"Married" persons refer to those who had a spouse (husband or wife), including those in common-law marriage.

Widowed ...

"Widowed" persons refer to those who had been separated from their spouse by death and were not married.

Divorced ...

"Divorced" persons refer to those who had been parted from their spouse by divorce and were not married.

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 Nationality

  "Nationality" refers to the country of citizenship and is classified into twelve categories, that is, "Japan", "Korea", "China", "Philippines", "Thailand", "Indinesia", "Viernam", "U.K.", "U.S.A.", "Brazil", "Peru" and "Others".

Persons with dual citizenship were treated as follows:

  1. Those who reported both Japanese nationality and foreign one-Japanese
  2. Those who reported two or more foreign nationalities other than Japanese one-The nationality entered in the column "Nationality" of the questionnaire.

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 Labour Force Status

  According to the type of activities during the week from 24th to 30th of September 2005, all persons 15 years of age and over are classified as follows:

Labour Force Status

The specifications of the main categories are:

Labour force ...

Labour force is a general term covering "employed" and "unemployed".

Employed ...

Employed persons refer to those who did any work during the week before the census date for pay or profit, such as wage, salary, allowance, business profit, etc.
Those who had a job or business but did not work at all during the week before the census date because of vacation, illness, bad weather, labour dispute or personal reasons are included in "Employed" only when one of the following conditions is satisfied:

(1)Employees whose absence from work did not extend over 30 days up to the census date or who received or expected to receive wage or salary during the week before the census date.

(2)Self-employed workers whose absence from work did not extend over 30 days up to the census date.
"Employed" persons include persons working in family business on a farm, in a store, in a private hospital and so forth, even though they were not paid any wages.

Unemployed ...

Unemployed persons refer to those who had no job but were able to work and actually seeking a job during the week before the census date.

Not in labour force ...

Not in labour force comprise all persons who had no job and did not make any positive effort to find a job during the week before the census date or were unable to work.

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 Employment Status

  All employed persons are classified, according to the employment status in the establishment where they were at work during the week before the census date, into the following six categories:

Employees...

Those employed by a person, a company, a corporation or a government office, etc., that is, office workers, factory workers, public servants, officers of a corporation, employees in a private retail shop, domestic servants, daily or temporary workers, etc. are included.

Regular employee ...

Persons whose employment period is not limited or the employment is more than one year.

Temporary employee ...

Persons whose employment period is set to less than a year, or employed on a daily basis.

Directors...

Directors of a company or a corporation including managing directors.

Self-employed, employing others ...

Persons who ran a business employing others, i.e., proprietors of private shops and factories, farmers, medical practitioners, lawyers, who had one or more employees.

Self-employed, not employing others ...

Persons who ran a business without employees.

Family workers ...

Persons who worked in a business, farm, trade or professional enterprise operated by a member of the household in which they lived.

Persons doing home handicraft ...

Persons who were doing home handicraft work.

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 Industry

  "Industry" refers to the kind of main activity of the establishment where an employed person actually worked during the week before the census date. In the case of an employed person who was "absent from work" during the week, "industry" refers to the kind of main activity of the establishment where he/she usually worked. If an employed person worked in two or more establishments, "industry" is decided by that of the establishment where he/she worked most.
  The industrial classification used for the 2005 Population Census is based on the Standard Industrial Classification for Japan, revised in March 2002, with some arrangements to be suited for the 2005 Population Census. It consists of 228 minor groups, 80 medium groups and 19 major groups.
  In this report, the major groups of the industrial classification are in some cases integrated into the following three groups:

Primary industry:

A.Agriculture

B.Forestry

C.Fisheries

Secondary industry:

D.Mining

E.Construction

F.Manufacturing

Tertiary industry:

G.Electricity, gas, heat supply and water

H.Information and communications

I.Transport

J.Wholesale and retail trade

K.Finance and insurance

L.Real estate

M.Eating and drinking places, accommodations

N.Medical, health care and welfare

O.Education, learning support

P.Compound services

Q.Services not elesewhere classified

R.Government not elsewhere classified

The remaining major group is "S. Establishments not adequately described".

For the English presentation of the detailed "Industrial Classification", see Industrial Classification.

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 Occupation

  "Occupation" refers to the kind of work an employed person actually did in the establishment during the week before the census date. In the case of an employed person who was "absent from work" during the week, "occupation" refers to the kind of work he/she was absent. If an employed person was engaged in two or more jobs, the kind of work is decided by the work in which he/she was mainly engaged. The occupational classification used for the 2005 Population Census is based on "Japan Standard Occupational Classification", revised in December 1997, with some arrangements to be suited for the 2005 Population Census. It consists of 274 minor groups, 61 medium groups and 10 major groups.
  The major groups of the occupational classification are as follows:

A.Specialist and technical workers

B.Administrative and managerial workers

C.Clerical workers

D.Sales workers

E.Service workers

F.Security workers

G.Agriculture, forestry and fishery workers

H.Transport and communication workers

I.Production process and related workers

J.Workers not classifiable by occupation

For the English presentation of the detailed "Occupational Classification", see Occupational Classification.

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 Hours of Work

  This refers to the total hours of work by the employed persons during the week before the census date. If a person did two or more jobs, the total hours worked on all jobs were reported.

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 Type of Household

  Households are classified into "private households" and "institutional households". They are defined as follows:

Private households ...

Private households consist of households of (1), (2) and (3) below.

(1)A group of persons sharing living quarters and living expenses or a person who lived by himself/herself occupying a dwelling house. The live-in single employee who lived with the household of their employer are included in the household of the employer regardless of the number of the live-in single employees.

(2)A person residing together with the household (1) above but keeping a separate budget, or a person residing in a boarding house.

(3)Each person who lived in a dormitory for unmarried employees of a company, corporation, store, government, etc.

Institutional households ...

Institutional households include households (1) to (6) below. It should be noted that households were, in principle, separated by dwelling unit (mune) for (1), (2) and (3), by company group or ship for (4), by building for (5) and by individual for (6).

(1)Students in school dormitories ... Those students living in a school dormitory.

(2)Inpatients of hospitals ... Inpatients who had been hospitalized in a hospital for three months or more at the census date.

(3)Inmates of social institutions ... Inmates of a social institution such as an aged people's home.

(4)Persons in camps of Self-Defence Forces ... Persons residing in a camp or crew of a ship of the Self-Defence Forces.

(5)Inmates of reformatory institutions ... Persons residing in a prison or a detention house whose penalties had been fixed, or persons in a reformatory or a women's guidance home.

(6)Others ... Persons who had no usual living places or crews who had no usual living places on land.

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 Household Members and Related Members

  "Household members" refer to individual persons constituting a household. And the head of household and other members related with the head by kinship, marriage or adoption are referred to as "related members", including an adopted child, a child by the previous marriage, an adoptive parent and the like.

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 Family Type of Household

  Private households are classified, according to the relationship to the household head among household members, into three broad categories; "relatives households", "non-relatives households" and "one-person households". "Relatives households" cover multi-person households consisting of the head and his/her related member(s). "Non-relatives households" refer to multi-person households without household members related to the head. The relatives households are further divided into twenty minor groups. These minor groups are categorized on the basis of the relation between the couple of the youngest generation and other related members, regardless of the presence of non-related members.

A. Relatives households ...

Households consist of the head of household and related member(s), and also include the non-relatives member(s) who live with them.

I. Family nuclei

(1) A married couple only

(2) A married couple with their child(ren)

(3) Father with his child(ren)

(4) Mother with her child(ren)


II. Other relatives households

(5) A couple with their parents

  1. A couple with husband's parents
  2. A couple with wife's parents

(6) A couple with their parent

  1. A couple with husband's parent
  2. A couple with wife's parent

(7) A couple with their child(ren) and parents

  1. A couple with their child(ren) and husband's parents
  2. A couple with their child(ren) and wife's parents

(8) A couple with their child(ren) and parent

  1. A couple with their child(ren) and husband's parent
  2. A couple with their child(ren) and wife's parent

(9) A couple with relative(s) other than child(ren) and parent(s)

(10) A couple with their child(ren) and relative(s) other than parent(s)

(11) A couple with their parent(s) and relative(s) other than child(ren)

  1. A couple with husband's parent(s) and relative(s) other than child(ren)
  2. A couple with wife's parent(s) and relative(s) other than child(ren)

(12) A couple with their child(ren), parent(s) and other relative(s)

  1. A couple with their child(ren), husband's parent(s) and other relative(s)
  2. A couple with their child(ren), wife's parent(s) and other relative(s)

(13) Brothers or sisters only

(14) Other relatives households not elsewhere classified

B. Non-relatives households ...

Households consisting of the head of household and those who are not related to him/her.

C. One-person households ...

Households consisting of one-person.

 Three-generation household

  Three-generation household is defined as follows: a household which more than three generations out of five generations in a direct line live together, regardless of the presence of other household members. The five generations in a direct line refer to the household members whose relationship to the head of household is "Head of household" / "Spouse of head", "Son or daughter" / "Spouse of son or daughter", "Grandson or granddaughter" / "Spouse of grandson or granddaughter", "Father or mother" / "Father or mother of spouse of head", or "Grandfather or grandmother" / "Grandfather or grandmother of spouse of head". Therefore, four-generation households or more are included. And also the following household are included: the household which "Head of household", "Father", and "Grandson" live together without "Son", that is, without intermediate generations. On the other hand, three-generation households in a collateral line are not included: the household which only "Head of household", "Son", and "Uncle of head" live together is not included.

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 Mother-Child(ren) Households and Father-Child(ren) Households

  Mother-child(ren) households refer to the private households consisting of only a never married, widowed or divorced mother and never married child(ren) under 20 years of age.
  Father-child(ren) households refer to private households consisting of only a never married, widowed or divorced father and never married child(ren) under 20 years of age.

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 Aged-Single-Person Households and Aged-Couple Households

  Aged-single-person households refer to private households consisting of one person 65 years of age and over only.
  Aged-couple households refer to private households consisting of a husband 65 years of age and over and his wife 60 years of age and over.

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 Kind of Residence

  Living quarters for private households are classified into the following two types:

Dwelling houses ...

Durable structures or structurally separated parts of a structure suitable for separate home life of a family. For instance, a detached private house, or each apartment of an apartment house completely partitioned and built for a separate family living is included in this type. Also included here are dwelling houses with store or workshop attached to them.

Others ...

All living quarters other than dwelling houses such as dormitories, boardinghouses, hospitals, schools, hotels, firms, factories and offices. Improvised housing units such as emergency tents or barracks are also included herein.

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 Tenure of Dwelling

  Private households living in dwelling houses are classified, according to the tenure of dwelling houses, into the following categories:

Principal Households ...

Households living in dwelling houses excluding those living in "Rented rooms".

Owned houses ...

Households living in dwelling houses owned by themselves. "Owned houses" include those which had not yet been registered or those which had been purchased in installments not yet paid up.

Rented houses owned by local governments ...

Households living in rented dwellings and apartments which were owned and administrated by prefectural or municipal governments, not including "Issued houses" below.

Rented houses owned by incorporated administrative agency and public corporation ...

Households living in rented dwellings and apartments managed by the Urban Renaissance Agency, and housing corporations managed by local governments, but not including "Issued houses" below. Also included are those managed by the Employment and Human Resources Development Organization and constructed for promoting employment.

Rented houses owned privately ...

Households living in privately owned dwelling houses rented by them, other than "Rented houses owned by incorporated administrative agency and public corporation" or "Issued houses".

Issued houses ...

Households living in dwelling houses owned by companies, private organizations or the government and issued to their employees in the households for the convenience of service of their employees or as a partial payment of wages. It makes no difference whether the rent was actually paid or not. Included in "issued houses" are the dwelling houses not owned but rented by companies or employers and issued to their employees.

Rented rooms ...

Households living in rented rooms in a part of dwelling houses (owned, rented or issued) occupied by other households.

 

If a household occupied a dwelling unit, the household was defined as the "principal household". If two or more households were living together in a dwelling unit, the owner of the dwelling, or, if there is no owner living together, the chief lessee was defined as the principal household.

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 Area of Floor Space

  The total area of floor space of dwelling includes vestibules, kitchens, corridors, toilets, bathrooms, closets, etc. in addition to dwelling rooms (living rooms, sitting rooms, bedrooms, drawing rooms, study rooms, reception rooms, alter rooms, dining rooms, etc.), but rooms used for business, unfloored places of farmhouses, staircases used jointly in apartment houses or flats, etc. are excluded.
  Entries made by unit of "tsubo" are converted to 3.3m2 per tsubo.

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 Type of Building

  Living quarters are classified into the following four types. For apartment houses or flats, the number of stories of the building and the floor on which the dwelling of a household was located were also enumerated. The number of stories is grouped into "1 or 2 stories", "3 to 5 stories", "6 to 10 stories" and "11 stories or more", and the floor on which the dwelling of a household was located is grouped into "1st or 2nd floor", "3rd to 5th floor", "6th to 10th floor" and "11th floor or above".

Detached houses ...

Buildings of one dwelling unit.

Tenement houses ...

Buildings consisting of two or more dwelling units connected with each other by walls but having independent doors to the street (directly or via gardens or grounds). Also included here are what are known as terrace houses.

Apartment houses or flats ...

Buildings consisting of two or more dwelling units of which passages, galleries, staircases, and so on were used jointly. In the case where two or more dwellings were built one above another, they were also included in this category.

Others ...

Dwellings other than those above. A part of a factory or an office used as a living quarter is included here.

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 Division of Area

  Japan is administratively divided into forty-seven prefectures of which forty-three carry the suffix ken and the remaining four are known as to, do or fu. Each prefecture is further divided into shi (cities) and gun or shicho (rural counties).
  These gun and shicho are subdivided into machi or cho (towns) and mura or son (villages). The fifteen major cities, i.e., Sapporo-shi, Sendai-shi, Saitama-shi, Chiba-shi, Tokyo, Yokohama-shi, Kawasaki-shi, Shizuoka-shi, Nagoya-shi, Kyoto-shi, Osaka-shi, Kobe-shi, Hiroshima-shi, Kitakyushu-shi and Fukuoka-shi are subdivided into ku (wards).

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 Densely Inhabited Districts

  For the statistical presentation of urban and rural areas, "all shi" and "all gun" (that is, machi and mura) have generally been employed in Japan. However, after the Town and Village Merger Acceleration Law was established in 1953, there was considerable enlargement of shi areas through absorption of neighbouring machi and mura as well as an increase in the number of shi due to the new incorporation of former machi or mura into shi.
  As a consequence, many shi came to encompass the sparsely inhabited agricultural areas under their jurisdiction. In this sense, "all shi" can hardly represent the pure urban area nowadays.
  Under these circumstances, the concept of Densely Inhabited District that was developed by the Statistics Bureau has been applied since the 1960 Population Census.
  A Densely Inhabited District which is often referred to as DID and sometimes represented by the symbol " * " in this report, is defined as an area within a shi, ku, machi or mura that is composed of a group of contiguous Basic Unit Blocks each of which has a population density of about 4,000 inhabitants or more per square kilometer and whose total population exceeds 5,000 as of 1 October 2005.

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 Commuting Status of Household Members

  Private households are divided into the following two groups:

(1)Households consisting of commuting employed persons and persons attending school only.

(2)Other households... Households consisting of commuting employed persons, persons attending school and household members remaining at home.

  According to the composition of remaining household members excluding commuting employed persons and persons attending school, "Other households" are divided as follows:

Aged persons only ...

Households consisting of aged persons at 65 years of age and over only.

Aged persons and child(ren) only ...

Households consisting of aged persons at 65 years of age and over and child(ren) under 6 years of age only.

Aged person, child(ren) and women only ...

Households consisting of aged persons at 65 years of age and over, child(ren) under 6 years of age and women 6 to 64 years of age only.

Aged persons and women only ...

Households consisting of aged persons at 65 years of age and over and women 6 to 64 years of age only.

Child(ren) only ...

Households consisting of child (ren) under 6 years of age only.

Child(ren) and women only ...

Households consisting of child(ren) under 6 years of age and women 6 to 64 years of age only.

Women only ...

Households consisting of women 6 to 64 years of age only.

Others ...

Households consisting of others who do not come under the above category.

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 Place of Work or Schooling

  "Place of work" refers to the place where an employed person was at work, while "Place of schooling" refers to the place where the school which a person attends was located. "Place of work or schooling" is classified as follows:

Working or Schooling in the Same Shi, Ku, Machi or Mura ...

It represents that the place of work or schooling of a person was located in the same municipality (shi, ku, machi or mura) where he/she usually lives.

At Home ...

It represents that the place of work of a person was his/her house or a store, workshop, etc. attached to his/her house. This category includes employers working at their dwellings with facilities to be used as a store, workshop, restaurant, etc., their family workers and the live-in employees. It also includes farmers, foresters and fishermen working in their own farms or their own ships and self-employed carpenters working in other places than their homes.

In Other Place than Home ...

It represents that the place of work or schooling of a person was located in the same municipality where he/she usually lives and does not come under the category of the above "at home".

Working or Schooling in Other Shi, Ku, Machi or Mura ...

It represents that the place of work or schooling of a person was located outside the municipality (shi, ku, machi or mura) where he/she usually lives. The population working or schooling in other shi, ku, machi or mura means the daily outflow population from the municipality where he/she usually lives.

Other Ku of the Same Shi ...

It represents that the place where he/she usually lives was within any one of the fifteen major cities (Sapporo-shi, Sendai-shi, Saitama-shi, Chiba-shi, ku area of Tokyo-to, Yokohama-shi, Kawasaki-shi, Shizuoka-shi, Nagoya-shi, Kyoto-shi, Osaka-shi, Kobe-shi, Hiroshima-shi, Kitakyushu-shi and Fukuoka-shi), but his/her place of work or schooling was in other ku of the same shi.

Other Shi, Ku, Machi or Mura of the same prefecture ...

It represents that the place of work or schooling of a person was located in the same prefecture (to, do, fu or ken) where he/she usually lives but not in the same municipality.

Other Prefecture ...

It represents that the place of work or schooling of a person was located in the prefecture different from that where he/she usually lives.

  Each of the fifteen major cities (Sapporo-shi, Sendai-shi, Saitama-shi, Chiba-shi, ku area of Tokyo-to, Yokohama-shi, Kawasaki-shi, Shizuoka-shi, Nagoya-shi, Kyoto-shi, Osaka-shi, Kobe-shi, Hiroshima-shi, Kitakyushu-shi and Fukuoka-shi) is divided into ku (ward), which is the smallest administrative unit under the supervision of the mayor or governor.
  Therefore, persons "working or schooling in other Shi, Ku, Machi or Mura" include a person whose place of work or schooling was located in the same shi where he/she usually lives but not in the same ku. "Place of work" refers to the place where an employed person was at work as described above. In the case of an employed person working outside such as a driver and a canvasser, however, his/her place of work was regarded as the municipality where the establishment he/she belonged to was situated, while as for a crewman, his/her place of work was regarded as the municipality where the base port for the ship was located. As a matter of convenience, those whose places of work or schooling were not located in Japan were treated as "Working or Schooling in the Same Shi, Ku, Machi or Mura".

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 (Daytime Population and Nighttime Population)

  Daytime population is calculated by the following formula using the tabulated results of place of work or schooling. Traveling from one place to another for shopping etc. in daytime, however, is not taken into account for that matter.
  Nighttime population (de jure population) refers to the population usually residing in the area concerned at the time of the census.
  City A, as an example:
[Daytime population of City A]
= [Nighttime population of City A] - [Outflow population from City A] + [Inflow population to City A]

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 (Ratio of Daytime Population to Nighttime Population)

  The ratio of daytime population to nighttime population is defined as daytime population per 100 persons of nighttime population. If the ratio for a certain area exceeds 100, it means that the area has more in-coming population than out-going population in the daytime. Conversely, if the ratio is below 100, the City A, the ratio is computed as follows:
[Ratio of daytime population to nighttime population for City A]
Ratio of daytime population to nighttime population for City A
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 Population in 2000 (readjusted) and Households in 2000 (readjusted)

  “Population in 2000 (readjusted)” and “Households in 2000 (readjusted)” refer to the 2000 population and Households of Shi, Ku, Machi or Mura readjusted according to the boundaries of Oct.1, 2005.

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