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Summary of Results (2016)

Results of the Survey of Research and Development

R&D Expenditure

Japan's total expenditure on R&D during fiscal year (FY) 2015 stood at 18.94 trillion yen, a 0.2 percent decrease from the previous fiscal year. It dropped for the first time in three years.
Expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP was 3.56 percent, a 0.10 percentage point decrease from the previous fiscal year.

Chart 1 Growth of R&D Expenditures

R&D expenditure of business enterprises stood at 13,686 billion yen, with a 0.7 percent increase from the previous year, that of non-profit institutions and public organizations stood at 1,609 billion yen, with a 4.7 percent decrease from the previous year, and that of universities and colleges stood at 3,644 billion yen, with a 1.4 percent decrease from the previous year.

Chart 2 R&D Expenditures by Sector of Performance

Within the business enterprises sector in FY 2015 , "Transportation equipment" showed the highest figure among all industries in the previous fiscal year, at 2.95 trillion yen (with a 3.8 percent increase from the previous year), its highest figure ever.

Chart 3 Composition of R&D Expenditures by Main Industries (Business Enterprises)

R&D Personnel

As of 31 March 2016, the total number of researchers is 847,100, a 2.3 percent decrease from the previous year. The number of researchers dropped for the first time in three years.
The number of female researchers is 138,400 and accounts for 15.3 percent of the total researchers. This figure is the highest ever.

Chart 4 Number of Female Researchers (Head Count)

Technology Balance of Payments

With regard to technology balance of payments by business enterprises, receipts from technology exports stood at 3.95 trillion yen, an increase of 7.9 percent from the previous fiscal year.
Payments from technology imports stood at 603 billion yen, a increase of 17.5 percent compared with the previous fiscal year. It increased for the first time in two years.
The technology balance of payments (receipts from technology exports minus payments from technology imports) stood at 3.35 trillion yen, an increase of 6.4 percent from the previous fiscal year. It has increased for six consecutive years since FY 2010 and showed the highest figure ever.

Chart 5 Technology Balance of Payments

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