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Home > Statistics > Housing and Land Survey > Explanation of Terms of the 1998 Survey > 2. Households

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Housing and Land Survey

2. Households

PRINCIPAL HOUSEHOLDS AND LODGING HOUSEHOLDS

If a household occupied an entire dwelling, the household was defined as the "principal household." In the case that two or more households were living together in a dwelling, the owner of the dwelling or, in the case that there was no owner living together, the chief lessee was defined as the "principal household," and the others were defined as "lodging households".
When two or more single persons were living together in a dwelling, for example, an unmarried person living in an apartment together with his/her friends, one of them was defined as the "principal household" and each of the other persons was defined as a "lodging household", for convenience sake.

ORDINARY HOUSEHOLDS AND QUASI-HOUSEHOLDS

An "ordinary household" was defined as a household of persons, such as family members, sharing living quarters, and living expenses. Lodging households consisting of family members as well as one-person households living in a dwelling were also defined as "ordinary households". All principal households were regarded as "ordinary households".
A "quasi-household" was defined as a single person or a group of single persons who lived in a boarding or lodging house, who were livein employees, or who lived in an occupied building other than dwellings, such as a company dormitory or a hotel. Lodging households living in dwellings and households living in occupied buildings other than dwellings were regarded as "ordinary households" if they lived with family members. In the case of dormitories, the maintenance person's household, if there was one, was regarded as the "ordinary household."

HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS

"Household members" refers to the number of persons usually living in a household.
Those who were temporarily away from home as of the date of the survey were included here. Crewmen of ships, except those of the Self-Defense Forces, who had been away from home for a long time and livein housekeeping employees living apart from their families, were included in the household members concerned. Lodgers and livein employees were excluded.

TYPE OF HOUSEHOLDS

1.Ordinary households were classified into the following groups according to the age of household members and the number of couples in the household.

(1)One-person households
a.One-person households of a person under 65 years old
b.One-person households of a person 65 years old and over
(2)Two-persons households
a.Households of a married couple only
(a)Aged-couple
(b)Others
b.Others
(3)Three-persons households
a.Households of a married couple and person under 6 years old
b.Households of a married couple and person 6-17 years old
c.Households of a married couple and person 18-24 years old
d.Households of a married couple and person 25 years old and over
e.(Recount) Households with household members of a aged couple
f.Others
(4)Four-persons households
a.Households of a married couple and person under 6 years old
b.Households of a married couple and person 6-17 years old
c.Households of a married couple and person 18-24 years old
d.Households of a married couple and person 25 years old and over
e.(Recount) Households with household members of an aged couple
f.Households of a married couple and person under 18 years old and person 65 years old and over
g.Others
(5)Five-persons households
a.Households of a married couple and person under 18 years old
b.Households of a married couple and person 18-24 years old
c.Households of a married couple and person 25 years old and over
d.(Recount) Households with household members of an aged couple
e.Households of a married couple and person under 18 years old and person 65 years old and over
f.Others
(6)Six or more persons households
a.Households of a married couple and person under 25 years old
b.Households of a married couple and person under 18 years old and person 65 years old and over
c.Others

2.Aged persons households were classified as follows:

(1)One-person principal households of a person 65 years old and over
Principal households composed of one person who is 65 years old and over.
(2)Households consisting of a couple in which one or both members are 65 years old and over
a. One member of the couple is 65 years old and over
Households composed of a couple in which one member of the couple is 65 years old and over.
b. Both members of the couple are 65 years old and over
Households composed of a couple in which both members are 65 years old and over.
(3)(Recount) Aged-couple
Households consisting of a couple in which the husband is 65 years old and over and the wife is 60 years old and over.
(4)(Separate count) Households with household members 65 years old and over
All households with persons 65 years old and over were separately counted.
(5)(Special count) One-person households of a person 75 years old and over
Households composed of one person who is 75 years old and over.
(6)Households consisting of a couple in which one or both members are 75 years old or over
a. One member of the couple is 75 years old and over
Households composed of a couple in which one member of the couple is 75 years old and over.
b. Both members of the couple are 75 years old and over
Households composed of a couple in which both members are 75 years old and over.
(7)(Separate count) Households with household members 75 years old and over
All households with persons 75 years old and over were separately counted.

FAMILY TYPE

According to the members usually living in the households, family type was classified as follows.
It was based on the youngest couple in the household. Children here refer to unmarried ones.
(1)A married couple only
(2)A married couple with their child(ren)
(3)A married couple with their child(ren) and parent(s)
(4)A married couple with their parent(s)
(5)Father or mother with his/her child(ren)
(6)Brother(s) and/or sister(s) only
(7)Household with other relatives not classified elsewhere
(8)One-person household
(9)Others
The case of a spouse who has been away from home for a long period and is not included in the household members, the family type is decided by the household members excluding the spouse. The household with a housekeeper is included in "Others".

AGE OF HOUSEHOLD MEMBER

"Age" refers to the age at the last birthday before October 1, 1998.

WAGE EARNER TEMPORARY LIVING APART FROM HIS/HER FAMILY

This refers to a wage earner with a spouse or dependent(s) who has lived or will live away from home for more than three months by business purpose.

ANNUAL INCOME

"Annual income" includes the total annual income (before tax) earned by all households members. Bonuses and overtime payments, revenues from assets such as rent, interests, dividends, and pensions were also included. However, extraordinary revenues, such as inheritance, donation, and retiring allowance, were not included.
In the case of self-employed workers, figures for operating income (not sales) excluding purchasing costs, material costs, personnel expenses, and other necessary expenses were used.

MONTHLY RENT

The amount of the monthly rent paid most recently was recorded for ordinary households except those living in owned houses.
Deposits, premiums, key money, and utility charges and maintenance expenses were not included here.

CHARGE FOR A COMMON SERVICE AND MANAGEMENT EXPENCES

These refer to the rates for water, electricity, cleaning, etc. for the common parts such as corridors, stairs, etc. paid separately from rent.

HOUSING STANDARDS

Housing standards have been established as goals of the Five-Year Plans for Housing Construction formulated by the Ministry of Construction to provide the Japanese people with secure and comfortable housing. In the seventh Five-Year Plan (FY1996-FY2000), the following standards were set.

Minimum Housing Standard

This is the basic level necessary for healthy and cultural living and every households should attain to this level.

Targeted Housing Standard

This is the housing standard that half of all the households in Japan should attain by around FY2000. This housing standard is divided into the following two categories.

Standard for Urban Areas

This standard is for dwellings in apartment houses in central and surrounding areas of cities.

Standard for Rural Areas

This standard is for detached houses in the suburbs of cities and in general non-urban areas.
For each of these standards, several criteria have been respectively set up, namely, (1) structure and size of dwelling rooms, (2) efficiency and facilities, (3) dwelling environment, and (4) size of dwelling by number of household members (area of dwelling rooms).
In this survey, the space for each household based on "(4) size of dwelling by number of household members (area of dwelling rooms)" was used to determine whether a household satisfied the respective housing standards.
The criteria for the size of dwelling rooms per household in the above housing standards were as follows:

Minimum Housing Standard

(1)Bedrooms
a. The married couple has a separate bedroom (6 tatami units); only one child under 5 years old shares the room with them.
b. Children who are 6 to 17 years old have a bedroom separate from the parents'. The bedroom is 6 tatami units for two children and 4.5 tatami units for one child, with a limit of up to two children per room. Boys and girls have separate bedrooms after age 12.
c. Each child who is 18 years old and over has a separate bedroom (4.5 tatami units).
(2)Dining room and kitchen
a. All households except one-person households have a dinette with a kitchen; one-person households have a kitchen.
b. The dinette is 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for 2- to 4-persons households, 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for households of 5 or more persons.
c. Middle-aged and elderly one-person households have a dinette with kitchen that is 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units).

Targeted Housing Standard

Standard for Urban Areas

(1)Bedrooms

a. The married couple has a separate bedroom (8 tatami units); only one child under 3 years old shares the room with them.
b. Children who are 4 to 11 years old have a bedroom separate from the parents'. The room is 8 tatami units for two children and 4.5 tatami units for one child, with a limit of up to two children per room.
c. Each child who is 12 years old and over has a separate bedroom (4.5 tatami units).
(2)Dining room and kitchen
a. All households except one-person households have a dining room and kitchen; one-person households have a dinette with a kitchen (6 tatami units).
b. The dining room is 5 square meters (3 tatami units) for 2-persons households and 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for 3- to 4-persons households, and 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for households of 5 or more persons.
c. The kitchen is 5 square meters (3 tatami units) for 2- or 3-persons households and 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for households of 4 or more persons.
(3)Living room
a. Households of 2 or more persons have a living room.
b. The living room is 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for 2-persons households, 13 square meters (8 tatami units) for 3-persons households, and 16 square meters (10 tatami units) for households of 4 or more persons.
(4)In the case of middle-aged or elderly one-person households and households with the elderly members, the following conditions should be satisfied respectively.
a. For middle-aged or aged one-person households, the dinette with kitchen is 13 square meters (8 tatami units).
b. For households with an aged member, the aged member has a separate living room, which is 10 square meters (6 tatami units).

Standard for Rural Areas

(1)Bedrooms
a. The married couple has a separate bedroom (8 tatami units); only one child under 3 years old shares the room with them.
b. Children who are 4 to 11 years old have a bedroom separate from the parents'. The room is 8 tatami units for two children and 6 tatami units for one child, with a limit of up to two children per room.
c. Each child who is 12 years old and over has a separate bedroom (6 tatami units).
(2)Dining room and kitchen
a. All households except one-person households have a dining room and a kitchen; one-person households have a dinette with a kitchen (6 tatami units).
b. The dining room is 5 square meters (3 tatami units) for 2-persons households, 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for 3- or 4-persons households, and 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for households of 5 or more persons.
c. The kitchen is 5 square meters (3 tatami units) for 2- to 3-persons households, and 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for households of 4 or more persons.
(3)Living room
a. Households of 2 or more persons have a living room.
b. The living room is 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for 2-persons households, 13 square meters (8 tatami units) for 3-persons households, and 16 square meters (10 tatami units) for households of 4 or more persons.
(4)An extra room should be secured for each household to be used as they see fit according to their own lifestyle. The room should be 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for one-person households, 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for 2- to 3-persons households and 13 square meters (8 tatami units) for households of 4 or more persons.
(5)In the case of middle-aged or aged one-person households and households with elderly members, the following conditions should be satisfied respectively.
a. For middle-aged or aged one-person households, the size of a dinette with kitchen is 13 square meters (8 tatami units).
b. For households with aged members, the aged member has a separate living room, which is 10 square meters (6 tatami units).
Households that satisfy the respective housing standards were further evaluated based on the installed facilities using the following criteria for each housing standard.

Households that exceed the minimum housing standard and satisfy the following criteria for installed facilities

(1)The kitchen is used exclusively by the household members.
(2)Facilities satisfy the following conditions:
a. The toilet is used exclusively by the household members.
b. Each household has a bathroom.
c. Each household has a lavatory.

Households that exceed the targeted housing standard and satisfy the following criteria for installed facilities

(1)The kitchen is used exclusively by the household members.
(2)Facilities satisfy the following conditions:
a. A flush toilet is used exclusively by the household members.
b. Each household has a bathroom.
c. Each household has a washstand.

MAIN EARNER OF HOUSEHOLD

The main earner refers to the person who is mainly responsible for earning the livelihood of his/her household, or the head of the household in the case that the household lives by remittances from other households, etc.
Age

"Age" refers to the age at the last birthday before October 1, 1998.
Employment Status

Main earners were classified in the categories shown below.
 
Self-employed workers

Workers in agriculture, forestry, or fisheries

Persons who operate a farm, forestry, or fisheries business on their own.
Workers in commerce, industry, etc.

Persons who operate on their own business other than agriculture, forestry, or fisheries. Included here are owners of private stores and factories, those engaged in business, which requires specialized techniques or knowledge, e.g., physicians, lawyers, writers, painters, and certified public accountants. Handicraft workers who work at home are also included in this category.
Employees

Employees of a company, association, public corporation, or an individual

Workers who are regularly employed (as company employees, association members, store clerks, etc.) by companies, public corporations (such as the Housing and Urban Development Corporation), or other corporations, associations, or individuals and receive wages and salaries.
Executives, such as company or public corporation presidents, managing directors, and directors, are also included in this category.
Regular government employees

Employees who are regularly employed in central or local government offices and receive wages and salaries.
Temporary workers or day-laborers

Persons who are employed on a daily basis or who hold a contract of employment for a specified period less than a year.
Unemployed

Students

Persons who have no job and mainly attend school.
Others

Persons who live on remittances from relatives, unemployment insurance benefits, livelihood assistance money, pensions, revenues from assets, etc.
Commuting time

"Commuting time" refers to the total amount of time required to commute (one way) from one's domicile to one's place of work by bus, train, or other usual form of transportation and includes the amount of time on foot. In the case of farmers, foresters, and fishermen who work in their own fields, forests, or fishing boats and in the case of self-employed carpenters, plasterers, peddlers, and others who travel various distances for their work, the time spent for commuting is taken as "zero," for convenience sake.
Year of last move

The survey recorded the year of relocation to the present dwelling. In the case that the present house was rebuilt on the same site after the respondent had moved in, the year of the initial relocation to the site was used. In the case that the main earner of the household had been living in the house since his/her birth, the year of birth was used.
Location of previous residence

As for the persons who relocated to the present dwelling after January 1986, the previous residence was reported as follows.
The same shi(city), machi(town), or mura(village)

This refers to cases where the previous dwelling was located in the same shi(city), machi(town), or mura(village) as the present dwelling.
Other shi(city), machi(town), or mura(village) in the same prefecture

This refers to cases where the previous dwelling was located in a different shi(city), machi (town), or mura(village) in the same prefecture as the present dwelling.
Other prefecture

This refers to cases where the previous dwelling was located in a different prefecture from the present dwelling.
Outside Japan

Cases where the previous residence was in a foreign country were included here.
Duration of living in previous residence

As for persons who relocated to the present dwelling after January 1986, the survey recorded the duration that they had lived in the previous residence just before the present residence.
Type of previous residence

As for persons who relocated to the present dwelling after January 1986, the type of previous residence was recorded, and it was classified into the following categories, for which the details are provided in the section on dwellings:
Parents' or relatives' houses

For cases in which the person resided in the homes of parents or other relatives.
Owned houses

Detached houses or tenement houses
Apartment houses
Rented houses

Owned by local government
Owned by public corporation
Owned privately (detached houses or tenement houses)
Owned privately (apartments)
Issued houses
Lodging houses or employer's house

Dormitories

Others

Buildings other than dwellings, which are not classified elsewhere, for example, hospitals, schools, hotels, and factories.
Residence of son/daughter of main earner, living in a different household

"The residence of the son/daughter of the main earner, living in a different household" is classified as follows.
When main earner has two or more children residing in different place, the child residing in nearest place was recorded in this survey.
No son/daughter living in a different household

Including no son/daughter.
Living together

In the case of person living together in the same dwelling unit with his or her son/daughter.
Living in the same building

In the case of person living in a separate dwelling in the same building unit with his or her son/daughter.
Living in other building in the same site

In the case of person living in a separate building unit in the same site with his or her son/ daughter.
Living in the neighborhood (within 5 minutes on foot)

Living at a place of less than 1 hour(one way)

Living at a place of 1 hour and over (one way)

"1 hour (one way)" refers to the time required by the transportation which is usually being used for the commuting.

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