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Home > Statistics > Housing and Land Survey > Explanation of Terms of the 1998 Survey > 1. Living quarters

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1. Living quarters

KIND OF OCCUPANCY STATUS

Living quarters are classified into dwelling houses and other occupied buildings

DWELLINGS

A dwelling is defined as a permanent building or a structurally separated part thereof,such as a detached house or an apartment of an apartment house that, by the way it has been built or altered, is intended for habitation by one household. A structurally separated part should be completely partitioned with fixed concrete or wooden walls.
A dwelling for habitation by one household must satisfy the following four requisites with respect to facilities.
(1) At least one room
(2) A sink for cooking
(3) A toilet
(Even if (2) and (3) are for joint use, they should be in a location where they can be used at any time and can be accessed without passing through other households.)
(4) An exclusive entrance (an entrance with direct access to the street or to a common space within the building)
Provided that they satisfy the above requisites, they are considered as dwellings even if they are not usually occupied.
Dwellings, which are not usually occupied, are referred to as dwellings without occupying households and are classified as follows:

Dwellings without occupying households

Dwellings with Temporary Occupants Only

Dwellings, which have no usual resident but, are used only in daytime or used by several persons on rotation.

Vacant Dwellings

Dwellings under Construction

Dwellings whose framework has been built, but construction has not been completed. Ferroconcrete buildings are included in this category if the outer walls have been built. A dwelling in which the internal finishing work has not yet been done but the door locks have already been fixed is classified as "vacant."
Dwellings under construction are regarded as complete dwellings if they are inhabited by a household.

OCCUPIED BUILDINGS OTHER THAN DWELLING

Buildings other than dwellings were included in this survey if they were inhabited. The following buildings were included in this category:
(1) Workers' dormitories built or designed for habitation by a group of single persons with separate budgets.
(2) School dormitories built or designed for habitation by a group of students with separate budgets.
(3) Boarding houses built or designed for single persons who lodge there for a long time and have separate budgets.
(4) Hotels, motels, or inns built or arranged for tourists or persons staying temporarily.
(5) Other occupied buildings built temporarily and not converted for human habitation, such as hospitals, factories,workshops, offices, and construction camps.
"Living" or "inhabiting" in this survey means that a person is usually living in the building in question, that is,living or intending to live there for more than three months as of the survey date.

KIND OF DWELLINGS

Dwellings were classified into the following three categories according to their uses.

Dwellings Used Exclusively for Living

Dwellings which are constructed or converted only for human habitation and include no facilities for business purposes, such as a store, workshop, or office.

Dwellings Used also for Agriculture, Forestry, or Fishery

Dwellings, which consist of living quarters and other facilities to be used for such activities as agriculture, forestry, and fishery. Most farmers' and fishermen's houses, for instance, are included in this category.

Dwellings Used also for Commerce or Other Purposes

Dwellings, which consist of living quarters and other facilities to be, used for purposes other than agriculture, forestry, and fisheries. Examples of dwellings in this category are stores, restaurants, barbershops, and general practitioners' offices.

TYPE OF BUILDINGS

Detached Houses

Buildings, which consist of a dwelling unit.

Tenement Houses

Buildings, which consist of two or more dwelling units connected by walls but each having an independent entrance to the street. Terrace houses are also included in this category.

Apartments

Buildings, which consist of two or more dwelling units of which passageways, staircases, and so on are jointly used. If two or more dwellings are built one above the other, they are also included in this category. Buildings with stores on the first floor and two or more dwellings above them also fall under this category.
When two or more apartments buildings (about more than fifty dwelling units) are built on the same site collectively and systematically, they are called "complex type." Other types are referred to as "non-complex type."

Others

Dwellings other than those mentioned above. A part of a factory or office, which satisfies the requisites of dwelling quarters, is included in this category.

USE OF BUILDING

Buildings are classified into the following three categories according to use of them.

Building for Living Only

A building which is used for living only and has no parts to be used for business purposes such as a store, a workshop or an office in it.
In case a part of the building for living only is used for business purposes, the one whose floor area for the business covers less than a fifth is included here.

Building for Living and Commerce or Other Purposes

A building which has both the part for business purposes and the one for living, and whose floor area for the business purposes covers less than four fifths of all the floor areas.

Others

A building which has both the part for business purposes and the one for living, and whose floor area for the business purposes covers more than four fifths of all the floor areas.

STORIES OF BUILDING

The number of stories of a building above the ground. Mezzanines, garrets, and basements are not included in this category.

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

Buildings are classified into the following categories according to their construction. If the walls or main frames of a house are constructed of two or more materials, the predominant material (of larger floor space) was recorded.


Wooden Buildings (excluding wooden and fireproofed buildings)

Buildings, whose main frames, including pillars and beams, are made of wood. This category does not included fireproofed wooden buildings.

Wooden and fireproofed Buildings

Buildings whose main frames, such as pillars and beams, are made of wood and whose roof and outer walls are covered with mortar, zinc sheet, or other fireproof material.

Ferroconcrete Buildings

Buildings whose frames are made of ferroconcrete or steel ferroconcrete.

Concrete Block Buildings

Buildings whose outer walls are made of concrete blocks, regardless of the material of the frame of the house.

Others

Buildings other than those mentioned above, for instance, a house whose frames are made of iron or steel or a house whose walls are made of bricks.

DEGREE OF DILAPIDATION

The degree of dilapidation is classified into the following three categories.

Repairs not Needed or Slight Repairs Needed

This is the case where no demolition is seen in the main part of a house or where no demolition is seen in the main part of house but some demolitions are found in other parts such as the outer boards, wall, which can be mended by slight repairs.

Major Repairs Needed

This is the case where a demolition is found in the main part of a house such as frames, pillars and roofs and it is judged a large repair is needed in order to keep the house in good condition.

Dilapidated beyond Repair

This refers to a house of which expected life span has been terminated or which has broken by typhoon, earthquake and other accidents. Also included here is a house of which dilapidated places are found in main part of house such as pillars, roofs and walls and the house is exposed to the dangers of destruction by wind or slight earthquake

YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION

The year of construction of all occupied houses was surveyed.
If a house was extended or renovated, the respondent was asked to specify the year of construction of the original house. However, if new floor space was more than half of the total floor space of the house after extension or renovation, the respondent was required to indicate the year of the extension or renovation.

TENURE OF DWELLING

The tenure of dwelling and occupied buildings other than dwelling were classified as follows:
 
Occupied Dwelling

Owned Houses

Dwellings, which are owned by the households occupying them. Also included here are dwellings, which have newly been constructed or have recently been purchased, but have not yet been registered at a registration office, and those which are being purchased in installments and whose loan payments have not yet been completed.
In the case of dwellings, which are owned by the parents of the members of households occupying them, they are also included here.

Rented Houses Owned by Local Government

Rented houses which are owned and administrated by the prefectural or municipal government and which are not included under issued houses.

Rented Houses Owned by Public Corporation

Rented houses, which are owned by the Urban Development Corporation (the former Housing and Urban Development Corporation) or housing corporations, managed by the prefectural or municipal government and which are not included under issued houses.
Also included in this category are rented houses operated by the Employment Promotion Projects Corporation for those who relocate in order to take new jobs.

Rented Houses Owned Privately

Rented houses, which are not owned by the national government, prefectures, cities, wards, towns, public corporations, or public enterprises and are not included under issued houses.

Owned Privately

Cases in which the household rents a detached house, apartment or others owned by individual.

Owned by Private Company

Cases in which the household rents a dwelling owned by juridical person (such as a condominium owned by a real estate company).

Issued Houses

Dwellings which are owned or administered by private companies, public bodies, etc. and rented to their employees or officials in order to meet the needs of their work or issued as a part of salaries and wages regardless of rent being paid. (This includes ordinary houses rented by companies or employees and occupied by their employees.)

Occupied Building Other Than Dwelling

Owned

Cases in which the household owns all or part of an occupied building other than a dwelling, such as a factory or office.

Rented

Cases in which the household rents all or part of an occupied building other than a dwelling, such as a factory or office.

TYPE OF KITCHEN

The type of the kitchen are classified as follows:
(1) Kitchen used only for cooking
Kitchen used only for cooking and separated from other rooms
(2) Kitchen also used as a dining room
Kitchen is not separated from a dining room
(3) Kitchen also used as a dining room and a living room
Kitchen is not separated from a dining room and a living room
(4) Other kitchen also used for other purposes
For instance, the kitchen which is not separated from an entrance hall is included in this category.
(5) Kitchen jointly used with other households
Kitchen jointly used with other households living in apartments, excluding the kitchen used with lodging households

SITUATION OF FACILITIES

(1) Kitchen and toilet facilities were categorized as "exclusive" or "joint" depending on whether they are used exclusively by household members or used jointly by two or more households. Based on this distinction, dwellings were classified into the following two categories:
kitchen and toilet facilities for exclusive use and kitchen and/or toilet facilities for joint use.

Kitchen and Toilet Facilities for Exclusive Use

Kitchen and toilet facilities used exclusively by the household members. If these facilities are used by lodging households as well as the principal household, they are also included in this category.

Kitchen and/or Toilet Facilities for Joint Use

Included here are the cases where either or both of the kitchen and toilet are used jointly by two or more households.

(2) Toilet, bathroom and lavatory facilities were classified as follows:

Toilet

Flush toilet: A toilet connected to a public sewer, septic tank, or cesspool.
Non-flush toilet: Any other type of above toilet.

Bathroom

With bathroom: Applied even if there is only a shower room in the premises.
Without bathroom: Applied when there is not a bathroom, even if there is a bathtub, in the premises.

Lavatory

With lavatory: Applied when there is equipment that supplies water exclusively for washing the face and hands.
Without lavatory: Applied to a kitchen sink, even if it is exclusively used for washing the face and hands.

NUMBER OF DWELLING ROOMS AND TATAMI UNITS

Number of Dwelling Rooms

Dwelling rooms include living rooms, bedrooms, drawing rooms, studies, and dining rooms. Entrance halls, kitchens, kitchenettes, toilet rooms, bathrooms, passageways, shops, offices, and other rooms used for professional or business purposes are not counted as dwelling rooms. Kitchens with a dining space whose floor space, excluding the space of the sink, kitchen, table, etc. is 5 square meters or more were included in the number of dwelling rooms. Rooms occupied by lodging households were also included in the number of rooms.

Number of Tatami Units of Dwelling Rooms

The total space of rooms mentioned above was measured in terms of the number of tatami units. A tatami unit is a Japanese floor mat, which is rectangular in shape and measures 90 cm by 180 cm. Two tatami units are equivalent to 3.3 square meters.

AREA OF FLOOR SPACE

The area of floor space refers to the total floor space covering the entrance, kitchen, toilet, bathroom, passageways, closet, etc. and rooms used for professional or business purposes, such as stores and offices, as well as dwelling rooms. However, storehouses and garages, as well as warehouses, workshops, etc. for a business located separate from the main part of the dwelling were not included in the floor area.
In the case of apartments, jointly used areas, such as passageways, kitchens, and toilets, were also excluded.

AREA OF BASEMENT

The basement refers to the floor space of dwelling rooms with the floor in the bottom from the ground side, and with the necessary conditions that the height to the ceiling from the ground side is less than 1.0m, and the height of even the ground side fills 1/3 and more of the height of the ceiling from the floor side.
The area of the basement refers to the total floor space in the bottom from the ground side which this necessary condition is filled in.

SITUATION OF FACILITIES FOR AGED PERSONS, ETC

Housing in which people live was categorized as follows using the criteria of whether there were certain facilities for aged persons, etc.

Equipped With Railing

Buildings equipped with safety railing to prevent the aged persons, etc. from falling down due to loss of balance.
In housing equipped with railing, the following places of installation were surveyed:



Easy-to-step-in Bathtub

The height of the bathtub from the floor of the bathroom is low enough for the aged persons, disabled persons, etc. to step over. Bathtubs with a height of 30 to 50 centimeters were considered to be easy-to-step-in tubs.

Corridor With the Width Enough for a Wheelchair to move

Housing where the width of the corridors or entrances to rooms is 80 centimeters or more.

House Without steps indoors

Housing designed without differences in level so that the aged persons, etc. do not trip and fall.
However, these differences in level do not include doorsteps and stairs.

Possible to Move with a Wheelchair from the Street to Entrance

Housing where there is no difference of level or obstacle so that a person in a wheelchair can pass safely and without assistance to the entrance from the adjacent road.
This includes cases where a gentle slope is provided to facilitate wheelchair to go to passage even if there is a large difference in level.

MEANS OF OBTAINING

Owned houses inhabited at the time of the survey were classified into the following groups according to the means of obtain.

Purchase Newly-Built-Houses

From Public Corporations
This refers to cases where the respondent purchased a newly constructed ready-built house or a house and lot subdivided from a larger lot from the Urban Development Corporation (the former Housing & Urban Development Corporation), or from housing supply corporations, housing associations, or development corporations of prefectures or municipalities.
From Private Company
This refers to cases where the respondent purchased a newly constructed ready-built house or a house and lot subdivided from a larger lot from a private real estate company, etc.

Purchase Used-Houses

This refers to cases where the resident purchased a used-house having been inhabited by another household or a house having been rented from others.

Newly Built (excluding rebuilt)

This refers to cases where the resident has constructed a newly acquired house on new ground or ground where a building other than a dwelling had been constructed and was removed for purpose of construction.

Rebuilt

This refers to cases where a new house was built in the same place or on the same ground where the previously owned house had been.

Inheritance or Grant

This refers to cases where the resident obtained a house from their parents, etc. by inheritance or grant.

Others

This refers to cases other than those mentioned above, e.g. cases where buildings were converted into dwellings.

ENLARGED OR REMODELLED

Inquiries were made to the owners of a house on whether or not any enlarged or remodelled facilities had been attempted since 1994.
Which parts of the house were enlarged or remodelled was inquired; in case the place enlarged or remodelled is dwelling rooms, the number of tatami units increased was also inquired.
1. Enlarged or remodelled
(1) The number of tatami units of dwelling rooms was increased
(2) The number of tatami units of dwelling rooms was not increased (including enlargement or remodelling rooms except dwelling rooms.)
2. Not enlarged or remodelled
Recount: Parts of enlargement or remodelling
Enlarged or remodelled dwelling rooms
Dwelling rooms only
Enlarged or remodelled kitchen
Kitchen only
Enlarged or remodelled toilet
Toilet only
Enlarged or remodelled bathroom
Bathroom only
Enlarged or remodelled other parts
Other parts only
In the case the houses or the dwelling rooms were enlarged or remodelled to be used as a store or an office or to be rented to other household, they were regarded as "Not enlarged or remodelled". In the case a detached building was built, corridors or closets were remodelled into the dwelling rooms, they were regarded "Enlarged or remodelled dwelling rooms", even though the total area of the floor space was not increased.

REMODELING OF FACILITIES FOR AGED PERSONS, ETC.

Inquiries were made to the house owners as to whether any remodeling of facilities for aged persons,etc. had been attempted since 1994.
This included remodeling already done for the future even if there were no aged persons at present.

Remodeling

Stairs and Corridors with Railing

Addition of handrails to staircases and corridors.

Slopes in the Residence

Installation of slopes to eliminate slight rises in floor level.

Remodeling of Bathroom and Toilet

Changing a bathtub into an inlaid one, or addition of handrails, or changing a toilet from Japanese-style squat toilet to a Western-style seated toilet, etc.

Others

Any other type of remodeling.

No Remodeling

TENURE OF SITE

The tenure of the site was classified into the following categories:



Owned Site

When a member of a household living in the house owns the site, it falls into this category regardless of the registration of ownership at the registration office. If the site is owned by the parents of the respondent and no rent was paid, it is also regarded as an owned site. The same is applied to cases where the respondent lives in an apartment or tenement house whose site is jointly owned by all residents.

Rented Site

This refers to cases where a person other than the household members is the owner of the site. If the site is owned by the parents of the respondent and rent is paid, it is also regarded as a rented site.

General Leasehold

All types of lease other than "fixed-term leasehold, etc." mentioned below.

Fixed-Term Leasehold, etc.

One of the leases established in August 1992, which falls under one of the following.
(1)A lease with a term of fifty years or more, which is accompanied by the following special contract(i.e., fixed-term leasehold, etc.): (i) No renewal of the contract can be made and (ii)no request can be made to the owner of the land to purchase the housing (building) on the rented site.
(2)A lease with a term of thirty years or more, which is accompanied by a special contract that the lease will be terminated after thirty years or more when the owner of the land purchases the housing (building) on the rented site. (i.e., leasehold with special contract for transfer of building)
Others

Cases where a household member or members live in an apartment house, detached house, or tenement house and has neither ownership nor a lease for the site.

SITE AREA

When the tenure of a site is "owned land," "rented land," or "other" (only in the case of a detached or tenement house), the site area was recorded in the survey. The area of the site means the land area on which dwelling houses and attached buildings are built, regardless of the registration regarding the type of land made at the registration office.
In cases where factories, offices, etc. were built on the same site area as the dwelling, the site area of factories, offices, etc. is excluded.
For farm households, the area of attached buildings on the premises, such as workshops, barns, was included, while the area used as fields was excluded regardless of the registration regarding the type of land.
In cases of apartment houses or tenement houses, the site area not for the whole building but for each dwelling unit (site for divisional ownership) was reported.

YEAR OF OBTAINING OF SITE

This refers to the year when the respondent purchased, rented, donated, or inherited the ground for the building site.
In cases where a rented site was purchased, the year of purchase was investigated.

KIND OF TRANSFER OF SITE

Concerning "owned site" and "rented site," the category was determined according to whom the site was purchased or rented from.

From Central or Local Government

Purchase or lease of a site owned by central or local government.

From Public Corporation

Purchase or lease of a site owned by the Urban Development Corporation (former Housing and Urban Development Corporation), or from housing supply corporations, housing associations, or development corporations of prefectures or municipalities.

From Private Company

Purchase or lease of a site owned by a private company.

From an Individual

Purchase or lease of a site owned by an individual.

By Inheritance or Grant

Acquisition of a site by inheritance or grant.

Others

Other than the abovementioned cases, purchase or lease as an equivalence exchange or from organizations other than corporations.

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