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Home > Statistics > Housing and Land Survey > Explanation of Terms of the 2003 Survey > 2. Households-related Terms

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Housing and Land Survey

2. Households-related Terms

Principal Households and Lodging Households

If a household occupied an entire dwelling, the household was defined as the "principal household." In the case that two or more households were living together in a dwelling, the owner of the dwelling-- or, in the case that there was no owner living together, the chief lessee-- was defined as the "principal household," and the others were defined as "lodging households".
When two or more single persons were living together in a dwelling, for example, an unmarried person living in an apartment together with his/her friends, one of them was defined as the "principal household" and each of the other persons was defined as a "lodging household", for convenience sake.

Ordinary Households and Quasi-households

An "ordinary household" was defined as a household of persons, such as family members, sharing living quarters, and living expenses. Lodging households consisting of family members as well as one-person households living in a dwelling were also defined as "ordinary households". All principal households were regarded as "ordinary households".
A "quasi-household" was defined as a single person or a group of single persons who lived in a boarding or lodging house, who were live-in employees, or who lived in an occupied building other than dwellings, such as a company dormitory or a hotel.
The single Quasi-households who live with principal household in a dwelling had been classified as one household by the dwelling. However, we have classified one person into one household since last survey in 1998.

Household Members

"Household members" refers to the number of persons usually living in a household.
Those who were temporarily away from home as of the date of the survey were included here. Crewmen of ships, except those of the Self-Defense Forces, who had been away from home for a long time and live-in housekeeping employees living apart from their families, were included in the household members concerned. Lodgers and live-in employees were excluded.

Type of Household

1.Ordinary households were classified as follows:

(1)One-person households
a.One-person households of a person under 65 years old
b.One-person households of a person 65 years old and over

(2)Two-persons households
a.Households of a couple only
(a)Aged-couple*
(b)Others
b.Others

(3)Three-persons households
a.Households of a couple and a person under 6 years old
b.Households of a couple and person 6-17 years old
c.Households of a couple and person 18-24 years old
d.Households of a couple and person 25 years old and over
e.(Re-classified) Households with household member of an aged couple*
f.Others

(4)Four-persons households
a.Households of a couple and person under 6 years old
b.Households of a couple and person 6-17 years old
c.Households couple and person 18-24 years old
d.Households of a couple and person 25 years old and over
e.(Re-classified) Households with household member of an aged couple*
f.Households of a couple and person under 18 years old and person 65 years old and over
g.Others

(5)Five-persons households
a.Households of a couple and person under 18 years old
b.Households couple and person 18-24 years old
c.Households of a couple and person 25 years old and over
d.(Re-classified) Households with household member of an aged couple*
e.Households of a couple and person under 18 years old and person 65 years old and over
f.Others

(6)Six or more persons households
a.Households of a couple and person under 25 years old
b.Households of a couple and person under 18 years old and person 65 years old and over
c.Others

If a spouse is away from the house for a long time (e.g., business bachelor), and not included in the houseold member, the type of household is determined by excluding the spouse.
Also note that for (2)-(6), only one-couple households are classified in detail, and those having two couples or more are classified as "Others". Furthermore, when there are two persons or more besides the couple in the household, it is classified according to the age of the eldest.

*The aged couple denotes one whose husband is aged 65 and over, and whose wife is aged 60 and over.

2.Aged Persons households were classified as follows:

(1)One-person aged 65 years and over

(2)Either or both of a couple are 65 years old and over
a.Either of a couple is 65 years old and over
b.Both of a couple are 65 years old and over

(3)(Re-classofoed)Households consisting of a couple whose husband is 65 years old and over, and whose wife is 60 years old and over.

(4)(Separate tabulation) With household members 65 years old and over

(5)(Special tabulation) One person aged 75 years old and over

(6)Ether or both of a couple are 75 years and over
a.Either of a couple is 75 years old and over
b.Both of a couple are 75 years old and over

(7)(Separate tabulation) With household members 75 years old and over

Family Type

According to the members usually living in the households, family type was classified as follows.It was based on the youngest couple in the household.

Households consisting of relatives

Nuclear family households

Households consisting only of a married couple

Households consisting of a married couple and their child(ren)

Households with male householder with his child(ren)

Households with female householder with her child(ren)

Other households consisting of relative(s)

Households consisting of a married couple and their parents

  Households consisting of a married couple and husband's parents

  Households consisting of a married couple and wife's parents

Households consisting of a married couple and their parent

  Households consisting of a married couple and a husband's parent

  Households consisting of a married couple and a wife's parent

Three-generation households with a married couple, child(ren) and 2grandparents

  Households consisting of a married couple, child(ren) and husband's parents

  Households consisting of a married couple, child(ren) and wife's parents

Three-generation households with a married couple, child(ren) and 1grandparent

  Households consisting of a married couple, child(ren) and a husband's parent

  Households consisting of a married couple, child(ren) and a wife's parent

Households with a married couple and other relative(s) (other than parents and child(ren))

Households with a married couple, child(ren) and other relative(s) (other than parents)

Households with a married couple, parent(s) and other relative(s) (other than child(ren))

  Households with a married couple, husband's parent(s) and other relatine(s)

  Households with a married couple, wife's parent(s) and other relatine(s)

Households consisting of 3generations and other relative(s)

  Households with a married couple, child(ren), husband's parent(s) and other relative(s)

  Households with a married couple, child(ren), wife's parent(s) and other relative(s)

Households consisting only of siblings

Households consisting of relative(s) not classified elsewhere

Households consisting of non-relative(s)

One-person households

"Households consisting of relatives" is those which have at least one family member who is a relative of the head of household, among the households which have two or more members. Even though there is a non-relative household (e.g., live-in housekeeping employee) residing together with the household, the household is categorized as "Households consisting of relatives". For example, "Households consisting only of a married couple" includes not only households with a married couple, but also those with a married couple and live - in housekeeping employee.
"Households consisting of non–relatives(s)" is those which have no relatives of the head of household, among the households which have two or more members.
If a spouse is away from the house for a long time (e.g., business bachelor), and not included in household member, the type of household is determined by excluding the spouse. And child(ren) here mean only those who remain single.

Age of Household member

"Age" refers to the age at the last birthday before October 1, 2003.

Annual Income of the Household

"Annual income" includes the total annual income (including tax) earned by all households members.
Bonuses and overtime payments, revenues from assets such as rent, interests, dividends, and pensions were also included. However, extraordinary revenues, such as inheritance, donation, and retiring allowance, were not included.
In the case of self-employed workers, figures for operating income (not sales) excluding purchasing costs, material costs, personnel expenses, and other necessary expenses were used.

Monthly Rent

The amount of the monthly rent paid most recently was recorded for ordinary households except those living in owned houses.
Deposits, premiums, key money, and utility charges and maintenance expenses were not included here.

Charge for Common Services

These refer to the rates for water, electricity, cleaning, etc. for the common parts such as corridors, stairs, etc. paid separately from rent.

Housing Standards

Housing standards have been established as goals of the Five-Year Plans for Housing Construction formulated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport to provide the people with secure and comfortable housing. In the eighth Fiive-Year Plan (FY2001-FY2005), the following standards were set.

Minimum Housing Standard

This is the basic level necessary for healthy and cultural living and every household should attain to  this level.

 Targeted Housing Standard

This is the level of housing that should be attained by 2/3 of the households in the whole country by  FY2015, and by half of the households in the Major Metropolitan Areas by FY2010. This standard  consists of the following two types:

Urban areas

This standard is for dwellings in apartment houses in central and surrounding areas of cities.

Rural areas

This standard is for detached houses in the suburbs of cities and in general non-urban areas.

For each of these standards, several criteria have been respectively set up, namely, (1) structure and size of dwelling rooms, (2) efficiency and facilities, (3) dwelling environment, and (4) size of dwelling by number of household members (area of dwelling rooms).
In this survey, the space for each household based on "(4) size of dwelling by number of household members (area of dwelling rooms)" was used to determine whether a household satisfied the respective housing standards.
The criteria for the size of dwelling rooms per household in the above housing standards were as follows:

Minimum Housing Standard

(1)Bedrooms
a. The married couple has a separate bedroom (6 tatami units); only one child under 5 years old shares the room with them.
b. Children who are 6 to 17 years old have a bedroom separate from the parents'. The bedroom is 6 tatami units for two children and 4.5 tatami units for one child, with a limit of up to two children per room. Boys and girls have separate bedrooms after age 12.
c. Each child 18 years old or over has a separate bedroom (4.5 tatami units).

(2)Dining room and kitchen
a. All households except one-person households have a dinette with a kitchen; one-person households have a kitchen.
b. The dinette is 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for 2- to 4-persons households, 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for households of 5 or more persons.
c. Middle-aged and elderly (30-64 years old) one-person households have a dinette with kitchen, that area is 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units).

 Targeted Housing Standard

Urban areas

(1)Bedrooms
a. The married couple has a separate bedroom (8 tatami units); only one child under 3 years old shares the room with them.
b. Children 4 to 11 years old have a bedroom separate from the parents'. The room is 8 tatami units for two children and 4.5 tatami units for one child, with a limit of up to two children per room.
c. Each child 12 years old and over has a separate bedroom (4.5 tatami units).

(2)Dining room and kitchen
a. All households except one-person households have a dining room and kitchen; one-person households have a dinette with a kitchen (6 tatami units).
b. The dining room is 5 square meters (3 tatami units) for 2-person households and 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for 3- to 4-person households, and 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for households of 5 or more persons.
c. The kitchen is 5 square meters (3 tatami units) for 2- or 3-person households and 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for households of 4 or more persons.

(3)Living room
a. Households of 2 or more persons have a living room.
b. The living room is 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for 2-person households, 13 square meters (8 tatami units) for 3-person households, and 16 square meters (10 tatami units) for households of 4 or more persons.

(4)In the case of middle-aged or elderly one-person households and households with the elderly members, the following conditions should be satisfied respectively.
a. For middle-aged or aged one-person households, the dinette with kitchen is 13 square meters (8 tatami units).
b. For households with an aged member, the aged member has a separate living room, which is 10 square meters (6 tatami units).

Rural areas

(1)Bedrooms
a. The married couple has a separate bedroom (8 tatami units); only one child under 3 years old shares the room with them.
b. Children 4 to 11 years old have a bedroom separate from the parents'. The room is 8 tatami units for two children and 6 tatami units for one child, with a limit of up to two children per room.
c. Each child 12 years old and over has a separate bedroom (6 tatami units).

(2)Dining room and kitchen
a. All households except one-person households have a dining room and a kitchen; one-person households have a dinette with a kitchen (6 tatami units).
b. The dining room is 5 square meters (3 tatami units) for 2-person households, 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for 3- or 4-person households, and 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for households of 5 or more persons.
c. The kitchen is 5 square meters (3 tatami units) for 2- to 3-person households, and 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for households of 4 or more persons.

(3)Living room
a. Households of 2 or more persons have a living room.
b. The living room is 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for 2-person households, 13 square meters (8 tatami units) for 3-person households, and 16 square meters (10 tatami units) for households of 4 or more persons.

(4)An extra room should be secured for each household to be used as they see fit according to their own lifestyle. The room should be 7.5 square meters (4.5 tatami units) for one-person households, 10 square meters (6 tatami units) for 2- to 3-person households and 13 square meters (8 tatami units) for households of 4 or more persons.

(5)In the case of middle-aged or aged one-person households and households with elderly members, the following conditions should be satisfied respectively.
a. For middle-aged or aged one-person households, the size of a dinette with kitchen is 13 square meters (8 tatami units).
b. For households with aged members, the aged member has a separate living room, which is 10 square meters (6 tatami units).

Households that satisfy the respective housing standards were further evaluated based on the installed facilities using the following criteria for each housing standard.

Households that Exceed the Minimum Housing Standard and Satisfy the Following criteria for Installed Facilities

(1)The kitchen is used exclusively by the household members.

(2)Facilities satisfy the following conditions:
a. Each households has a toilet.
b. Each household has a bathroom.
c. Each household has a lavatory.

Households that Exceed the Targeted Housing Standard and Satisfy the following Criteria for Installed Facilities

(1)The kitchen is used exclusively by the household members.

(2)Facilities satisfy the following conditions:
a. Each households has a flush toilet.
b. Each household has a bathroom.
c. Each household has a washstand.

Main Eaner of Household

The main earner refers to the person who is mainly responsible for earning the livelihood of his/her household, or the head of the household in the case that the household lives by remittances from other households, etc.

Age

"Age" refers to the age at the last birthday before October 1, 2003.

Employment Status

Main earners were classified in the categories shown below.

Employment Status

Self-employed workers

In agriculture, forestry, or fisheries

Persons who operate a farm, forestry, or fisheries business on their own.

In commerce, industry, etc.

  Persons who operate on their own a business other than agriculture, forestry, or fisheries. Included here owners of private stores and factories, those engaged in a business, which requires specialized techniques or knowledge, e.g., physicians, lawyers, writers, painters, and certified public accountants. Handicraft workers who work at home are also included in this category.

Employees

Employees of a company, association, public corporation, or of an individual

  Workers who are regularly employed (as company employees, association members, store clerks, etc.) by companies, public corporations (such as the Housing and Urban Development Corporation), or other corporations, associations, or individuals and receive wages and salaries.
  Executives, such as company or public corporation presidents, managing directors, and directors, are also included in this category.

Government regular employees

  Employees who are regularly employed in central or local government offices and receive wages and salaries.

Temporary workers

  Persons who are employed on a daily basis or who hold a contract of employment for a specified period of less than a year.

Without occupation

Students

Persons who have no job and mainly attend school.

Others

  Persons who live on remittances from relatives, unemployment insurance benefits, livelihood assistance money, pensions, revenues from assets, etc.

Commuting Hours

"Commuting time" refers to the total amount of time required to commute (one way) from one's  domicile to one's place of work by bus, train, or other usual form of transportation and includes the  amount of time on foot. In the case of farmers, foresters, and fishermen who work in their own fields,  forests, or fishing boats and in the case of self-employed carpenters, plasterers, peddlers, and others  who travel various distances for their work, the time spent for commuting is taken as "zero," for  convenience sake.

Year of Last Move of Main Earner

  The survey recorded the year of relocation to the present dwelling. In the case that the present house  was rebuilt on the same site after the respondent had moved in, the year of the initial relocation to the  site was used. In the case that the main earner of the household had been living in the house since  his/her birth, the year of birth was used.

Place of Previous Residence

  As for the persons who relocated to the present dwelling after January 1999, the previous residence  was reported as follows.

The same shi, ku, machi, or mura

  This refers to cases where the previous dwelling was located in the same shi, ku, machi, or mura as the present dwelling.

Other shi, ku, machi, or mura in same prefecture

  This refers to cases where the previous dwelling was located in a different shi, ku, machi, or mura in the same prefecture as the present dwelling.

Another prefecture

  This refers to cases where the previous dwelling was located in a different prefecture from the present dwelling.

Outside Japan

  Cases where the previous residence was in a foreign country were included here.

Type of the Previous Residence

  As for persons who relocated to the present dwelling after January 1999, the type of previous  residence was recorded, and it was classified into the following categories, for which the details are  provided in the section on dwellings:

Lived in relatives' Houses

  For cases in which the person resided in the homes of parents or other relatives.

Owned Houses

  Detached houses or tenement houses
  Apartments

Rented houses

  • Rented houses owned by local governments
  • Rented houses owned by public corporations
  • Rentrd houses owned privately (detached houses or tenement houses)
  • Rented houses owned privately (apartments)
  • Issued houses

Lived in Lodging Houses or Employer's House

Lived in Dormitories

Others

  Buildings other than dwellings, which are not classified elsewhere, for example, hospitals, schools, hotels,  and factories.

Residence of Son/Daughter of Main Earner, Living in Different Household

"The residence of the son/daughter of the main earner, living in a different household" is classified as follows.
When the main earner has two or more children residing in different place, the child residing in nearest place was recorded in this survey.

Son/Daughter Living in Different Households

Living Together

  In the case of person living together in the same dwelling unit with his or her son/daughter.

Living in the Same Building or on the Same Site

  In the case that the child live in a different household located in the same building of the apartment, or live in a different building located in the same site.

Living within 5 Minutes Walk

Living within 15 Minutes(one way)*

Living at a place of less than 1 Hour(one way)*

Living One Hour or more away*

  *"15 minutes (one way) and 1 hour (one way)" refers to the time required by the transportation which is usually used for the commuting.

No Son/Daughter Living in a Different Household

Including no son/daughter.

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