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Home > Statistics > Housing and Land Survey > Explanation of Terms of the 2003 Survey > 1. Dwelling-related Terms

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Housing and Land Survey

1. Dwelling-related Terms

Dwellings

A dwelling is defined as a permanent building or a structurally separated part thereof,such as a detached house or an apartment of an apartment house that, by the way it has been built or altered, is intended for habitation by one household.
A structurally separated part should be completely partitioned with fixed concrete or wooden walls.
A dwelling for habitation by one household must satisfy the following four requisites with respect to facilities.
(1) At least one room;
(2) A sink for cooking for exclusive use;
(3) A toilet for exclusive used; and
(Even if (2) and (3) are for joint use, they should be in a location where they can be used at any time and can be accessed without passing through other households.)
(4) An entrance for exclusive use.
As to (4), it may be a direct access to the street, or an access to the hallway which occupants and visitors can use.)

Provided that they satisfy the above requisites, dwelling are considered as such even if they are not usually occupied.
Dwellings, which are not usually occupied, are referred to as dwellings without occupying households and are classified as follows:

Dwellings without Occupying Households

Dwellings without Occupying Households

Dwellings with Temporary Occupants Only

Dwellings, which have no usual resident but, are used only in daytime or used by several persons on rotation.

Vacant Dwellings

A Second Dwellings

Villas:

  Dwellings where no household usually lives which and are used as vacation houses for spending weekends or holidays or as summer or winter resorts for recreation, etc.

Others

  Houses, which are used occasionally, for example, for staying overnight after overtime work late at night.

For Rent

  Vacant dwellings for rent whether they are newly built or not.

For Sale

  Vacant dwellings for sale whether they are newly built or not.

Others

  Dwellings other than those mentioned above. Dwellings included in this category are those not inhabited for a long time because of the transference or hospitalization or those to be destroyed for the purpose of rebuilding.

Under Construction

Dwellings whose framework has been built, but construction has not been completed. Ferroconcrete buildings are included in this category if the outer walls have been built.
A dwelling in which the internal finishing work has not yet been fixed is classified as "vacant."
Dwellings under construction are regarded as complete dwellings if they are inhabited by a household.

Occupied Buildings Other than Dwelling

Buildings other than dwellings were included in this survey if they were inhabited. The following buildings were included in this category:
(1) Workers' dormitories built or designed for habitation by a group of single persons with separate budgets.
(2) School dormitories built or designed for habitation by a group of students with separate budgets.
(3) Boarding houses built or designed for single persons who lodge there for a long time and have separate budgets.
(4) Hotels, motels, or inns built or arranged for tourists or persons staying temporarily.
(5) Other occupied buildings built temporarily and not converted for human habitation, such as hospitals, workshops, offices, and construction camps.

"Living" or "inhabiting" in this survey means that a person is usually living in the building in question, that is,living or intending to live there for more than three months as of the survey date.

Type of Dwelling

Dwellings were classified into the following two categories according to their use.

Used Exclusively for Living

Dwellings which are constructed or converted only for human habitation and include no facilities for business purposes, such as a store, workshop, or and offices.

Used also for Commerce or Other Purposes

Dwellings which consist of living quarters and other facilities such as stores, restaurants, barbershops, and docter's offices as well as earth floors, workplaces, and barns for agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishely and cultivation.

Type of Building

Dwellings were classified into the following way according to how the buildings concerned are built.

Detached Houses

Buildings, which consist of a dwelling unit.

Tenement-Houses

Buildings, which consist of two or more dwelling units connected by walls but each having an independent entrance to the street. Terrace houses are also included in this category.

Apartments

Buildings, which consist of two or more dwelling units of which passageways, staircases, and so on are jointly used. If two or more dwellings are built one above the other, they are also included in this category. Buildings with stores on the first floor and two or more dwellings above them also fall under this category.

Others

Dwellings other than those mentioned above. A part of a factory or office, which is satisfied as dwelling quarters, is included in this category.

Stories of Building

The number of stories of a building above the ground. Mezzanines, garrets, and basements are not included in this category.

Construction Material

Buildings are classified in the following way according to their construction material. In the case that two or more materials are used, the material predominant in terms of floor space is chosen for the classification.

Construction Material

Wooden (excluding wooden and fire-proofed

Buildings, whose main frames, including pillars and beams, are made of wood. This category does not included fireproofed wooden buildings.

Wooden and fire-proofed

Buildings whose main frames, such as pillars and beams, are made of wood and whose roofs and outer walls are covered with mortar, siding boards, zinc sheet, or other fireproof material.

Reinforced Steel-flamed Concrete

Buildings whose frames are made of ferroconcrete or steel ferroconcrete.

Steel-framed

Buildings whose main fremes, such as pillars and beams, are made of iron.

Others

Buildings other than those mentioned above, for example, whose walls are made of concrete blocks or bricks.

Year of Construction

The year of construction of all occupied houses.
If a house was extended or renovated, the respondent was asked to specify the year of construction of the original house. However, if new floor space was more than half of the total floor space of the house after extension or renovation, the respondent was required to indicate the year of the extension or renovation.

Tenure of Dwelling

The tenure of dwelling and occupied buildings other than dwelling where classified as follows:

Tenure of Dwelling

Occupied Dwellings

Owned Houses

  Dwellings, which are owned by the households occupying them. Also included here are dwellings, which  have newly been constructed or have recently been purchased, but have not yet been registered at a  registration office, and those which are being purchased in installments and whose loan payments have  not yet been completed.

Rented Houses Owned by Local Governments

  Rented houses which are owned and administrated by the prefectural or municipal government and  which are not included under issued houses.

Rented Houses Owned by Public Corporations

  Rented houses, which are owned by the Urban Development Corporation* or housing corporations,  managed by the prefectural or municipal government and which are not included under issued houses.
  Also included in this category are rented houses operated by the Employment Promotion Projects  Corporation for those who relocate in order to get new jobs.
  *Altered to Incorprated Administrative Agency Urban Renaissance Agency on July 1, 2004.

Rented Houses Owned Privately

  Rented houses, which are not owned by the national government, prefectures, cities, wards, towns,  public corporations, or public enterprises and are not included under issued houses.

Owned Privately

  Cases in which the household rents a detached house, apartment or others owned by individual.

Owned by Private Company

  Cases in which the household rents a dwelling owned by juridical person (such as a condominium owned  by a real estate company).

Issued Houses

  Dwellings which are owned or administered by private companies, public bodies, etc. and rented to their  employees or officials in order to meet the needs of their work or issued as a part of salaries and  wages regardless of rent being paid. (This includes ordinary houses rented by companies or employees  and occupied by their employees.)

Occupied Building Other Than Dwelling

Owned

  Cases in which the household owns all or part of an occupied building other than a dwelling, such as a  factory or office.

Rented

  Cases in which the household rents all or part of an occupied building other than a dwelling, such as a  factory or office.

Type of Kitchen

The type of the kitchen are classified as follows:

(1) Kitchen used only for cooking
Kitchen used only for cooking and separated from other rooms

(2) Kitchen also used as a dining room
Kitchen is not separated from a dining room

(3) Kitchen also used as a dining-room and a living-room
Kitchen is not separated from a dining-room and a living-room

(4) Other kitchen also used for other purposes
For instance, the kitchen which is not separated from an entrance hall is included in this category.

(5) Kitchen jointly used with other households
Kitchen jointly used with other households living in apartments, excluding the kitchen used with lodging  households

Situation of Facilities

1. Kitchens were categorized as Used exclusively and Used jointly:

Uused Exclusively

Refers to the case in which the kitchen is used only by the occupying household. When it is shared by  the principal and inmate households, it is also regarded as "exclusively used".

Uused Jointly

Kitchen shared with other household.

2.Toilet,bathroom and lavatory were categorized as folloes:

Toilet

Flush: A toilet connected to a public sewer, septic tank, or cesspool.
Non-flush:Other type of toilets.

Western-style -tToilet

With western-style toilet:Those converted from Japanese style toilets by simply putting western style  seats are also included here.
Without western-style toilet

Bathroom

With bathroom: Applies even if there is only a shower room in the premises.
Without bathroom:Applies when there is not a bathroom, even if there is a bathtub, in the premises.

Lavatory

With lavatory: Applies when there is equipment that supplies water exclusively for washing the face and  hands.
Without lavatory

Number of Dwelling Rooms and Number of Tatami Units

Number of Dwelling Rooms

Dwelling rooms include living rooms, bedrooms, drawing rooms, studies, and dining rooms. Entrance halls,  kitchens, kitchenettes, toilet rooms, bathrooms, passageways, earth floors, as well as shops, offices, and  other rooms used for professional or business purposes are not counted as dwelling rooms.
Kitchens with a dining space whose floor space, excluding the space of the sink, kitchen, table, etc. is 5  square meters or more were included in the number of dwelling rooms. Rooms occupied by lodging  households were also included in the number of rooms.

Number of Tatami Units

The total space of rooms mentioned above was measured in terms of the number of tatami units. A  tatami unit is a Japanese floor mat, which is rectangular in shape and measures 90 cm by 180 cm. Two  tatami units are equivalent to 3.3 square meters.

Area of Floor Space

The area of floor space refers to the total floor space covering the entrance, kitchen, toilet, bathroom, passageways, each floors,closet, etc. and rooms used for professional or business purposes, such as stores and offices, as well as dwelling rooms. However, storehouses and garages, as well as warehouses, workshops, etc. for a business located separate from the main part of the dwelling were not included in the floor area.
In the case of apartments, jointly used areas, such as passageways, kitchens, and toilets, were also excluded.

Floor Area of Basement

The basement refers to the floor space of dwelling rooms with the floor in the bottom from the ground side, and with the necessary conditions that the height to the ceiling from the ground side is less than 1.0m, and the height of even the ground side fills 1/3 and more of the height of the ceiling from the floor side.
The area of the basement refers to the total floor space in the bottom from the ground side which this necessary condition is filled in.

Facilities for Aged Persons, etc

Housing in which people live was categorized as follows, using the criteria of whether there were certain facilities for aged persons, etc.

Equipped with Facilities for Aged Persons, etc.

Equipped with Railing

Buildings equipped with safety railing to prevent the aged persons, etc. from falling down due to loss of balance.
In housing equipped with railing, the following places of installation were surveyed:

Equipped with Railing

Easy-to-step-in Bath-tub

  The height of the bathtub from the floor of the bathroom is low enough for the aged persons, etc. to step over. Bath-tubs with a height of 30 to 50 centimeters were considered to be easy-to-step-in tubs.

Passage is Wide Enough for Wheel-chairs

  Housing where the width of the corridors or entrances to rooms is 80 centimeters or more.

Without Steps Indoor

  Housing designed without differences in level so that the aged persons, etc. do not trip and fall. However, these differences in level do not include doorsteps and stairs.

Possible to Move with a Wheel-chair from the Street to Entrance

  Housing where there is no difference of level or obstacle so that a person in a wheel-chair can pass safely and without assistance to the entrance from the adjacent road.
  This includes cases where a gentle slope is provided to facilitate wheel-chair passage in places where there is a large difference in level.

Without Facilities for Aged Persons, etc.

Residential Fire Protection Facilities

Fire protection Facilities of the dwelling are classified as follows:

Automatic Smoke Detectors

Facilities which detect fires automatically by heat, smoke or blaza, and dispatch fire signals or fire  warning signals to fire extinction facilities, or give fire warnings (including simple fire alarm equipment available in the market). However, those located not in each dwelling, but only in the common spaces in  apartments etc. are not counted here.

Automatic Fire Extinction Facilities

Facilities such as sprinkler systems which extinguish fires automatically by receiving fire signals or fire  warning signals.However, those located not in each dwelling, but only in the common spaces in  apartments etc. are not counted here.

Energy-saving Equipmen, etc.

Energysaving facilities etc. are listed as follows:

Water Heating Unit Utilizing Solar Energy

Systems which heat water pulled up on the roof by solar energy, and distribute the heated water to  the bathrooms and kitchens. Another systems which heat the whole dwelling by sending the air warmed  by solar energy in the garret under the floor by fan are also included here.

Generator Utilizing Solar Energy

Systems which collect sunshine by the condensing board on the roof, and convert it into electricity.

Double-Sash Window or Double Glass Window

Double-Sash

  Those windows which have two (or three) inner and outer sashes.In the case that the innner sash is a Japanese style Shoji sliding paper window, that window is not included here.

DoubleGlass Window

Those windows which combines plural sheets of glass, and insulates by making air space between glasses.
Dwellings are classified into three types, depending on the number of Double Glass Windows.
(1)All windows
(2)Some windows
(3)No windows

Parking Space Availability

Parking spaces of households with automobiles are categorized as flloes:

On the Premise

Includes the case when they are located in the compound of the apartments etc. where the household  lives.

Off the Premise

Percentage of Dwellings Need to be Repaired

It is categorized depending upon the degree of dilapidation of the mainframe of the dwelling such as walls, pillars, floors, beams, roofs etc. as well as of the other part of the dwelling, and the proportion of these dwellings in each of enumeration unit districts.

Purchase, Construction, Reconstruction, etc. of Owned Houses

Owned houses inhabited at the time of the survey were classified into the following groups according to the meanes of obtain.

Purchase Newly Built Houses

From Public Corporations:

  This refers to cases where the respondent purchased a nwely constructed ready-built house or a house and lot subdivided from a larger lot from the Urban Development Corporation, or from housing supply corporations, housing associations, or development corporations of prefectures or municipalities.

From Private Companies:

  This refers to cases where the respondent purchased a newly conatructed ready-built house or a house and lot subdivided from a larger lot from a private real estate company, etc.

Purchase Used-houses

  This refers to cases where the resident purchased a used-house having been inhabited by another  household or a house having been rented from others.

Newly Built(excluding rebuilt)

  This refers to cases where the resident has constructed a nwely acquired houses on new ground or  ground where a building other than a dwelling had been constructed and was removed for purpose of  construction.

Rebuilt

  This refers to cases where a new house was built in the same place or on the same ground where the  previously owned house had been.

Inheritance or Grant

  This refers to cases where the resident obtained a house from their parents, etc. by inheritance or  grant.

Others

  This refers to cases other than those mentioned above, e.g. cases where buildings were converted into  dwellings.

Enlargement or Remodeled

Inquiries were made to the owners of a house on whether or not any enlarged or remodelled facilities had been attempted since January 1999(except for construction and reconstruction).
Which parts of the house (e.g. dwelling rooms, kitchen, toilet, bathroom, or other) were enlarged or remodelled was inquired; in case the part is dweling rooms, the number of tatami nuits increased was also inquired.

Enlarged or Remodelled

(1) The number of tatami units of dwelling rooms was increased
(2) The number of tatami units of dwelling rooms was not increased including enlargement or remodelling rooms except dwelling rooms

Not Enlarged or Remodelled

(Parts of Enlarged or Remodeled)
  Enlarged or remodelled dwelling rooms
  Enlarged or remodelled kitchen
  Enlarged or remodelled toilet
  Enlarged or remodelled bathroom
  Enlarged or remodelled other parts

In the case the houses or the dwelling rooms were enlarged or remodelled to be used as a store or an office or to be rented to other household, they were regarded as "Not enlarged or remodelled". In the case a detached building was built, corridors or closets were remodelled into the dwelling rooms, they were regarded "Enlarged or remodelled dwelling rooms", though the total area of the floor space was not increased.

Remodeling of Facilities for Aged Persons, etc.

Inquiries were made to the house owners as to whether any remodeling of facilities for aged persons, etc. had been attempted since January 1999.
This included remodeling already done for the future even if there were no aged persons at present.

Remodeling for Aged Persons, etc.

Stairs and Corridors with Railing

Addition of handrails to staircases and corridors.

Slopes in the Residence

Installation of slopes to eliminate slight rises in floor level.

Remodeling of Bathroom

Converting a bathtub to an inlaid one, or placing handrails in the bathroom.

Remodeling of Toilet

Converting the Japanese style toilet seat to a Western style, placing warm water cleaning toilet seat,  etc.

Others

Any other types of remodeling.

No Remodeling for Aged Persons, etc.

Remodeling for Earthquake-Proof

Inquiries were made to households living in "owned houses" whether they had made earthquake-resistant improvenents on the houses since January 1999.
Earthquake-resistant construction made at reconstruction, construction, purchase, enlargement or renovation by the own will of the households is regarded as this case.
The categories are as follows:

Remodeled to Make It Earthquake-Proof

Newly-Built or Reinforced Wall

Refers to the case where windows are replaced by walls in order to resist horizontal tremors.

Installation of Diagonal Bracing

Refers to the case where diagonal braces (crossed timbers) are placed between pillars in order to  resist horizontal tremors.

Reinforcement of Foundation

Refers to the case where the pebble-made foundation has been changed to a concrete-made one, or  the foundation has been reinforced to a ferroconcrete one.

Reinforcement by Bolts

Refers to the case where pillars and beams, or pillars and foundations are connected using cramp irons  in order to alleviate the sway and prevent components of the frame such as pillars from falling or  starting.

Others

Improvements other than stated above (e.g., renewal of timber rotten or damaged by termites etc.),  and replacement of the roof of heavy tile by one of lighter metallic plate to lessen the weight of the  building.

Not Remodeled

Tenure of the Site

The tenure of the site was classified into the following categories:

Tenure of the Site

Owned Site

Refers to the case where member of the household living in the dwelling ownes the land, of the dwelling site. it does not matter whether it has been registered, or the loan payments have not completed.
In addition, this also refers to the case where the land belongs to the parents of the household members and the rent is not paid for it, or where the land is shared by other households who live in the same apartment or tenement house.

Rented Site

This refers to cases where a person other than the household members is the owner of the site. If the site is owned by the parents of the resident and rent is paid, it is also regarded as a rented site.

General Leasehold

All types of lease other than "fixed-term leasehold, etc." mentioned below.

Fixed-Term Leasehold, etc.

One of the leases established in August 1992, which falls under one of the following.

(1)A lease with a term of fifty years or more, which is accompanied by the following special contract(i.e., fixed-term leasehold, etc.): (i) No renewal of the contract can be made and (ii)no request can be made to the owner of the land to purchase the housing (building) on the rented site.

(2)A lease with a term of thirty years or more, which is accompanied by a special contract that the lease will be terminated after thirty years or more when the owner of the land purchases the housing (building) on the rented site. (i.e., leasehold with special contract for transfer of building)

Others

Cases where a household member or members live in an apartment house, detached house, or tenement house and has neither ownership nor a lease for the site.

Site Area

When the tenure of a site is "owned land," "rented land," or "other" (only in the case of a detached or tenement house), the site area was recorded in the survey.
The area of the site means the land area on which dwelling houses and attached buildings are built, regardless of the registration regarding the type of land made at the registration office.
In cases where factories, offices, etc. were built on the same site area as the dwelling, the site area of factories, offices, etc. is excluded.
For farm households, the area of attached buildings on the premises, such as workshops, barns, was included, while the area used as fields was excluded regardless of the registration regarding the type of land.
In cases of apartment houses or tenement houses, the site area not for the whole building but for each dwelling unit (site for divisional ownership) was reported.

Type of Transfer of Site

Concerning "owned site" and "rented site," the category was determined according to whom the site was purchased or rented from.

From Central or Local Government

Purchase or lease of a site owned by central or local government.

From Public Corporation

Purchase or lease of a site owned by the Urban Development Corporation (former the Housing and Urban Development Corporation), or from housing supply corporations, housing associations, or development corporations of prefectures or municipalities.

From Corporation such as a Companies

Purchase or lease of a site owned by a private company.

From an Individual

Purchase or lease of a site owned by an individual.

By Inheritance or Grant

Acquisition of a site by inheritance or grant.

Others

Other than the abovementioned cases, purchase or lease as an equivalence exchange or from organizations other than corporations.

Year of Acquisition of Site

This refers to the year when the respondent purchased, rented, donated, or inherited the ground for the building site.
In cases where a rented site was purchased, the year of purchase was investigated.

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