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Chapter 27 Government Employees and Elections
This chapter contains statistics concerning central and local government employees and elections.
System and brief history
1. System of government employees
The system of government employees in Japan before World War II (1945) had been gradually developed during the Meiji Period (1868 - 1911) under the Salary Schedule Regulation of Higher Officials, etc. enacted in 1886 followed by the Civil Service Probationers and Trainees Regulation stipulated in 1887. Thereafter, the system underwent no major change until 1945 when WWII was brought to the end, at which time the system was completely reformed.
The National Public Service Law was promulgated in October 1947. The Law provides that a merit system should be adopted for personnel management, thereby guaranteeing the employment and appointment of public officials based on competitive tests or actual proof of ability. Prior to the War, local public employees including prefectural governors and city (town and village) officials were responsible for local administration, and the salaries of these local public employees were charged to the National Treasury under the local public service personnel system.
On the other hand, under the Local Public Service Law enacted in December 1950, all employees of local public bodies were defined as local government employees, whereby a uniform system of local government employees was established for the first time. Thus, a modern system of government employees was founded both for national government employees and for local government employees.
2. Statistics on government employees
In August 1871, the Statistics Department was set up within the Ministry of Finance to compile statistics on public officials as well as statistics on land, population and public finance. In 1882, the first Statistical Yearbook was published, which contained statistics concerning public service personnel. During World War II , its publication was temporarily suspended. Subsequent to the end of the War, the National Personnel Authority enacted regulations in 1949 based upon the National Public Service Law legislated in October 1947 and published the "Statistical Table on National Government Employees of General Class."
In 1965, the Personnel Bureau of the Management and Coordination Agency (currently, the Personnel and Pension Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) took over the duty. Since then, it has been publishing the statistical table every year. On the other hand, the National Personnel Authority has been publishing the "Report on the Survey on Wages of National Government Employees, etc." since 1949 and the "Report on the Survey on Recruitment of National Government Employees of General Class" since 1954.
With respect to local government employees, the Ministry of Home Affairs (currently the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) has been conducting the "Survey on Wages of Local Government Employees" since 1955.
Statistical Report on National Government Employees of General Class
Statistics on the number of national government employees are listed according to the ministry (agency), payroll, pay grade, a reason(s) for temporary retirement, paid salary and month.
Survey on Recruitment of National Government Employees of General Class
The survey topics include recruitment by type of service, change of assignment, movement from other payroll category, retirement , sex, age, classification of examination for service, applicable payroll category, pay grade and pay class.
Survey on Wages of National Government Employees, etc.
The topics of the survey include items concerning the post and station employed, items concerning various allowances, type of examination for service, pay grade, classification of adjusted allowances, fulltime or short-term, etc.
Survey on Wages of Local Government Employees (Designated Statistics No. 76)
The topics of the survey include items concerning the basic attributes of an individual and items concerning salary and allowances, etc.
Brief history of the election system
1. The National Diet was founded in Japan in 1889, when the Election Law for the House of Representatives was promulgated. Japan held the first House of Representatives election in July 1890 based on the Law. This Election Law, however, included a provision restricting voting rights according to tax payments.
In 1945, Japan fully adopted a popular election system in the revision of the Election Law for the House of Representatives. It abolished all discrimination against women in elections, in which voting rights were granted to every citizen of age 20 and over and eligibility to stand as a candidate in an election was set at age 25 and over.
2. The Imperial Constitution enacted in 1889 called for the National Diet consisting of two Houses. The House of Peers was installed as an organ to check the House of Representatives.
The Constitution of Japan promulgated on November 3, 1946 also called for the two-chamber system, in which the House of Councilors replaced the House of Peers. It states that both Houses shall consist of elected members, representatives of all the people. In February 1947, the House of Councilors Election Law was enacted.
3. In 1871, the Japanese government abolished the feudal clan system, thereby establishing a system of prefectures. In 1878, it enacted the Law for Organizing the County, Town and Village and also Regulations on the Prefectural Assembly, thereby establishing the first local election system that was uniformly applied nationwide. The government proclaimed the municipal system in 1888, the prefectural system and the county system in 1890. Subsequent to the proclamation, regulations were stipulated concerning the prefectural assembly members' election, the county assembly members' election and the municipal (city, town and village) assembly members' election, thereby paving the way to a modern local election system.
After the end of World War II , the local election system of Japan was further improved under the Local Public Service Law enacted in April 1947.
4. In April 1950, the Public Offices Election Law was enacted as a harmonized election law that covered local elections as well as elections for the National Diet members. In 1982, the Public Offices Election Law was revised to abolish the nationwide constituency of the House of Councilors election and introduce a system in which the House of Councilors is constituted of members elected by proportional representation of parties and by constituency voting.
In 1994, another electoral reform was made for the House of Representatives. That is, the medium-sized constituency system was replaced by a new dual electoral system in which single-seat constituencies and proportional representation of parties were combined. In 1998, the overseas election system was established. In 2000, the Public Offices Election Law was revised to change the election system for the House of Councilors from proportional representation on a binding register of names to proportional representation by a non-binding register of names.