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Chapter 26 Culture and Leisure
This chapter contains statistics concerning culture, mass-media, and leisure activities, etc.
1. Culture-related facilities and cultural property
Social Education Survey (Fundamental Statistics)
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has been carrying out the survey every three or five years since 1955. In the present survey, seven questionnaires are used, out of which three questionnaire - museum questionnaire, library questionnaire and sport facilities questionnaire - are relevant to this chapter.
Library Statistics of Colleges and Universities
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has conducted this survey every year since 1966. It adopts a method of complete enumeration in which the central and branch libraries of all national, public and private colleges/universities and the libraries of each faculty, affiliated research institute and affiliated hospital. The topics of the survey includes the number of staff, the number of books, the number of books returned, and the number of books checked out.
Survey on Facilities for Physical Education and Sports
The survey was started in 1969 to examine the conditions of sport facilities in Japan as the "Factual Survey of Sports." Since 1975, it has been conducted every five years in most cases. Since 1990, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has conducted the survey every six years.
Parks can be divided into three types - a natural park designated based on the Natural Parks Law, an urban park established by the Urban Parks Law and the National gardens which was originally a property of the Imperial Household and is opened to the public. Data on natural parks and the National gardens are derived from the "Survey on Users of Natural Parks, etc." and other data are issued by the Ministry of Environment. The source of data on urban parks is the "Survey of Urban Park Maintenance and Development" by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport.
A variety of measures have been taken to protect cultural property since the Meiji Period (1867 - 1911). After World War II , the Cultural Property Protection Law was enacted in 1950 as a general law for the protection of cultural assets, thereby consistently dealing with matters pertaining to the protection of cultural property. The scope of cultural property has been gradually expanded by adding new intangible cultural property, folk materials and buried cultural assets.
At present, the protection of cultural property is under the jurisdiction of the Agency for Cultural Affairs. The Agency compiles statistics on cultural property and releases them in the "Annual Report of the Agency for Cultural Affairs" and the "Basic Materials for the Administration of Culture and Culture Properties."
2. Publication and mass-media
Books and magazines
Data on books and magazines are derived from the "Yearbook on Publication" published by the Publication News, inc. The statistics contained in this section are related to the number of new publications and the number of issues of magazines. New publications include books - primarily books for sale - which are dedicated to the National Diet Library and books that are identified in a survey of major distributors. Data on magazines are primarily on magazines for sale, academic journals, official bulletins, and special magazines as required.
In 1875, the Newspaper Ordinance was enacted and the publication of newspapers was placed under the control of the Ministry of Home Affairs. In 1887, the conventional licensing system was changed to a registration system. Subsequent to a partial revision to the Ordinance in 1897, the Newspaper Law was enacted in 1909. The number of papers issued was listed in the "Statistical Report by the Ministry of Home Affairs" for the period from 1881 to 1941.
After the end of WWII, freedom of speech was guaranteed and the Newspaper Law was abolished in 1949. Statistics on the publication of newspapers, i.e. a circulation of a daily newspaper, are derived from the reports submitted by newspaper companies to the Japan Newspaper Publishers and Editors Association as of October each year.
Statistics are derived from the "National Survey of Movies" by the Japan Federation of Film Producers and the "Statistics on Foreign Movies" by the Foreign Movie Importers and Distributors Association. The number of movie theaters is contained also in the "Report on Public Health Administration" by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
Records, CDs and videos, etc.
The Japan Record Association collects reports from its member companies. Data on the production of records has been collected since 1930. After WWII, data on cassette tapes and CDs were added to the data.
The Japan Video Software Association collects data pertaining to videos from its member companies. The sales amount of videocassette tapes has been available since 1978. The sales amounts and numbers of laser disks and DVDs have been available since 1983 and 1996 respectively.
Prior to World War II , Tokyo Broadcasting Corporation was founded in 1924 for radio broadcasting. Subsequently, Nagoya Broadcasting Corporation and Osaka Broadcasting Corporation were established. The three broadcasting corporations were merged in 1926, thereby establishing the Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK). After the end of the War, it was approved in 1951 to found private broadcasting companies for radio broadcasting.
As for the television, Nippon Hoso Kyokai officially started its broadcasts in 1953. Broadcasting by a private broadcasting company was started six months later by Nippon Television Network Corporation. A television broadcast in color was started in 1960.
3. Culture-related Occupations
The population census includes a category for the number of people who are authors, artists, designers, photographers, Musicians, Actors and professional sports persons as specialized occupations in the minor occupation groups.
Professional sports players and "Go" and "Shogi" players
Statistics on the number of sports players and other pertaining data are available in the "Yearbook of Professional Sports" edited by the Japan Professional Sports Association. With respect to the number of professional players in Go and Shogi, data are derived from the "Yearbook of Go" issued by the Nihon Ki-in (Japan Go Association) and the "Yearbook of Shogi" edited by the Japan Shogi Association.
4. Cultural activities, education, leisure and trips
Included are statistics on movie theaters, golf courses, tennis courts, bowling alleys and playhouses. The data source is the "Report on the Current Survey of Selected Service Industries" compiled by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. (Refer to Chapter 11 Information and Communication.)
Time-series data are available in the "Report on the Business of the Major 50 Travel Agents" issued by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. In addition, there are the "Survey on Leisure Activities" and the "Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities."
Expenses for cultural and educational activities
This section contains expenses used for cultural and educational activities by household members. The statistics are taken from the "Family Income and Expenditure Survey" by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (Refer to Chapter 20 Family Income and Expenditure).
Statistics on religions can be traced back to 1879 when the "Statistical Report on Shrines and Temples" was prepared according to the administrative memorandum of the Ministry of Home Affairs. Systematic statistics were compiled in 1914 when religious leaders were mandated to submit reports by the "Statistical Report of Shinto and Buddhist Sects" and the "Statistical Report Concerning Religions and the Preservation of Old Temples." In 1939, the Religious Organization Law was enacted. The Law mandated the religious leaders of authorized religious denominations, sects and orders to submit reports.
In 1945 after the end of the War, the Religious Organization Law was abolished and the Religious Corporation Ordinance was enacted. In 1951, the Religious Corporation Law was enacted. The Agency for Cultural Affairs has been conducting the "Statistical Survey on Religions" every year since 1949.
6. Time use and activities
Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities (Fundamental Statistics)
The Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications conducted the first survey in 1976. It was the first official large-scale survey focusing upon time use and leisure activities. The survey is conducted every five years to shed light on the usage of time and the main free-time activities (sports, education/cultural pastime, trip, study/research and volunteer activity) of the people.
Survey on Time Use
The Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) has been conducting this survey every five years since 1960. It is carried out to illustrate how people use their time in a day so that its findings are used to produce broadcasting programs suited to people's general rhythm of life. At the same time, the findings are broadly utilized as basic data on the livelihoods of Japanese people.
Survey on Leisure Activities
The Institute for Free Time Design has been conducting the "Survey on Leisure Activities" since 1987 to collect time-series data on the people's perception on free time and participation in leisure activities. In 2003, the survey was transferred to the control of the Japan Productivity Center for Socio-economic Development.