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Chapter 25 Education

      This chapter contains statistics on education, including facilities, activities and expenditures.

System of statistics and brief history

      A modern education system was established under the Cabinet Decree enacted in 1872, although it was not perfect. In 1886, the Japanese government promulgated the "Elementary School Decree," the "Junior High School Decree," and the "Normal School Decree," thereby spreading compulsory education to the general public. In the field of higher education, the government promulgated the "High School Decree" in 1894, the "Professional College Decree" in 1903 and the "University Decree" in 1919, whereby the prewar education system was completed.

      Since 1935, when Japan was increasingly involved in the War, the education system underwent further changes. Subsequent to the end of the War, the Fundamental Law of Education and the School Education Law were enacted in 1947, thereby establishing a new postwar schooling system.

      After the end of the War, existing surveys and statistics on education were restructured for improvements just as in other fields. As a result, new surveys were instituted. In the field of school education, two basic surveys - the "School Basic Survey" and the "School Teachers Survey" were conducted. The former was designed to grasp the number of schools, number of classes, numbers of children, pupils and students, numbers of teachers and school employees, facilities and accounting. The latter was designed to explore the composition of teachers, individual attributes and job specifications, etc. Various other surveys have been carried out including surveys concerning education expenditures paid by local public bodies and parents (or guardians) of children/pupils.

      In the field of social education, surveys of lifelong learning and social education on their facilities and use have been implemented as well as the basic survey - "Social Education Survey." (Refer to Chapter 26 Culture and Leisure.)

School Basic Survey (Designated Statistics No. 13)

      The Ministry of Education (currently the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) has been conducting the survey since 1943. Its purpose is to gain a basic understanding of schools and to obtain basic materials for the administration of education.

      The survey uses of six questionnaires - a school questionnaire, a school education by correspondence questionnaire, a non-attending school children questionnaire, a school facilities questionnaire, a school expenditures questionnaire and a questionnaire on post-graduation courses. This survey covers all schools established under the Law of School Education including schools from kindergartens to universities, schools for the blind and the deaf, schools for physically/mentally disabled persons, vocational schools and other miscellaneous schools.

Survey of Local Educational Expenditure

      The Ministry of Education (currently the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) has been carrying out the survey since 1948. The purpose of the survey is to illuminate the expenditure of local public bodies in school education, and in the administration of education, revenue from tuition and the organization of local education administrative bodies. The survey results are used as basic materials for reviewing and planning various education measures at national and local levels.

      The survey uses of five questionnaires. They are a school education expenditure questionnaire, a social education expenditure and education administrative expenditure questionnaire, a revenue questionnaire concerning education, a lifelong learning-related expenditure questionnaire for departments/bureaus in the prefectural government, and an education administration questionnaire. It covers all schools established under the Fundamental Law of School Education and the boards of education in prefectures, cities, towns and villages.

Basic Survey of School Corporations

      The Promotion and Mutual Aid Corporation for Private Schools of Japan has been conducting the survey since 1971. Its purpose is to grasp the financial situations, education and research conditions and school personnel of private schools, thereby providing basic materials for the work of the Corporation, such as a request for appropriation of budgets to private schools and for the management of school corporations. The survey covers all schools (excluding kindergartens) that conform to Article 1 of the Law of School Education. The survey topics includes numbers of students, teaching staff and school employees and the conditions of facilities, equipment and financial situations.

      In 1999, various other surveys concerning the financial situations of private schools that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology had been conducting were integrated into this survey.

Survey of Household Expenditure on Education per Student

      The Ministry of Education has been implementing this survey since 1952 to examine the expenditures spent by parents (or guardians) who send their children to public or private schools for their children's education and extramural activities. The survey results are used as basic materials for the review and planning of various measures for education taken by the national government. The survey uses a parent (guardian) questionnaire and a school questionnaire. The topics of the survey include school education expenditures, extramural activity expenditures, payments to school, school lunch expenditures and donation to school.


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