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Chapter 21 Housing
This chapter contains statistics on housing conditions.
Before World War II (1945), the only nationwide survey on the housing conditions was the "Population Census" of 1930, in which the number of rooms in a house was surveyed. However, local surveys on housing were separately conducted, and in the 1920s, surveys on housing in large cities including Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya were carried out.
The Ministry of Health and Welfare (currently Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) conducted a sample survey in 1938 and 1939, on the lease of land and buildings. In 1941, it conducted the "Housing Survey of Larger Cities" in 24 cities with a population of 150 thousand or more and the "Housing Survey of Industrial Cities" in medium and small-sized cities and towns with a population of 100 thousand or less.
It was only after the end of World War II that a nation-wide and independent survey was conducted. In 1948, the Statistics Bureau of the Prime Minister's Office carried out the first nation-wide housing survey. Subsequently, it was conducted every five years. The title of the survey was changed to the "Housing and Land Survey" in 1998 so as to illuminate the actual conditions of "land" owned by each household as well as the conditions of housing. On the other hand, the "Population Census" was designed to survey attributes of houses and housing conditions since 1950.
The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport conducts the "Survey on Demand for Houses." It instituted the first survey in 35 cities with a population of 200 thousand or more in 1960. In 1961, it covered all urban districts. The target area was expanded to the entire nation in 1969 and 1973. It has been carried out every five years since 1973.
Housing and Land Survey (Fundamental Statistics)
The "Housing and Land Survey" has been conducted every five years since 1948. The first survey was implemented in 1948 as a complete enumeration under the title of the "Housing Survey." The "Housing Survey" of 1953 was a sample survey focusing on cities only. In 1958, however, the target area was extended to the entire nation as a sample survey to be carried out every five years. Since 1998, the survey has been conducted under the name of the "Housing and Land Survey" in which data concerning land privately owned by each household is collected in addition to data on houses.
The Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications carries out the survey. The survey includes attributes of houses, households, primary supporter of the household or the head of a household, living environment, and houses and land owned, if any, besides the present address.
Population Census (Fundamental Statistics)
Refer to Chapter 2 Population and Households.