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Chapter 17 Science and TechnologyThis chapter covers science and technology.
Statistics on science and technology are comparatively fewer than other fields. In prewar days available were only statistics concerning applications for and registrations of patents prepared by the Japan Patent Office. Statistics on researches and studies began with the collection of data from research organizations including universities all over the nation for preparing a statistical administrative report.
Under such circumstances, it was strongly recognized that data on science and technology would be essential as basic materials for the policy to enhance science and technology. In 1953, the Statistics Bureau of the Prime Minister's Office started the "Basic Survey of Research Organizations" as a full-scale survey, thereby paving the way for the "Survey of Research and Development."
The statistics compiled in this chapter are composed of data collected under the "Survey of Research and Development," data concerning industrial property that can be traced back to prewar days.
In addition to the aforementioned statistics, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology regularly carries out a technological forecast survey on a different topic each time and makes its statistics available. Furthermore, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry conducts the Basic Survey of Japanese Business Structure and Activities that is designed to collect data on research and development, ownership of technology and transactions.
Survey of Research and Development (Fundamental Statistics)
The prototype of the survey is the "Basic Survey of Research Organizations," which was started in 1953, to probe research activities in science and technology in Japan and collect basic data required for the enhancement of science and technology. In 1960, the title of the survey was changed to the "Survey of Research and Development." In parallel with the change, its scope was expanded to include companies (including government-affiliated corporations) with a capital of one million yen or more excluding those in some specified industries. The topics of the survey were also expanded to add the number of researchers by field of study and research expenses for outsourcing.
Subsequently, the survey underwent revisions including further expansion of its scope. Furthermore, the field of energy researches and the field of life science were added as attached surveys in 1977 and 1978 respectively. These two attached surveys, however, were abolished in 1999. Instead, life science and energy were added as categories under research expenses by specified purpose in the Survey of Research and Development. It is conducted by the Statistics Bureau in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.
The Numbers of Applications for and Registrations of Industrial Property
The first regulations concerning patents in Japan can be traced back to 1871 when the monopoly regulation was stipulated as a decree from the Cabinet. The Statute of Trademark, which is comparable to the present-day Industrial Property Law, and the Statute of Monopoly Patent were promulgated in 1884 and in 1885 respectively.
In 1888, the government promulgated the Statute of Patent, the Statute of Design and the Statute of Trademark, which came into force in the following year, 1889. In 1899, the government promulgated and enforced the Patent Law, the Design Law and the Trademark Law. In 1905, the Utility Model Law took effect, thereby laying the foundations of the today's legal system. After subsequent revisions, the present law was established in 1959.
The existing law underwent a few revisions from the perspective of strengthening the protection of intellectual property. In 2002, the "Basic Law for Intellectual Property" was enacted for categorically and systematically enhancing policies concerning the creation, protection and utilization of intellectual property. The Japan Patent Office compiles statistics on the numbers of applications for and registrations of industrial property.