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Chapter 15 Real Estate and Land
This chapter contains statistics concerning the ownership of real estate and land, statistics concerning increases or decreases in and transactions of real estate and land, and statistics on the prices of real estate and land.
Statistics concerning the trade of real estate and land contained in this chapter are mostly based on the data collected by private institutions. It is advised that the user would reconfirm the characteristics of the data when they are used.
The Statistics Council submitted the report in 1966 titled "Improvement of Statistics on Land and Construction," and another report "Improvements in the Development of Various Statistics on Housing and Land for Housing" in 1980. In the meantime, the "Survey of the Construction Trend of Housing Supply Enterprises" was started in 1969. In 1970, the "Survey of the Land Area Prepared for Housing," and the "Survey on the Acquisition of Land by Enterprises" were started in 1972. However, a system of statistics had not been fully developed for a long period of time.
A survey of land and buildings owned by corporations and a survey of land and buildings owned by households were carried out in 1993 and 1998 respectively, thereby making the very basic data of real estate statistics, i.e. data on the ownership of land and buildings, available.
Survey on the Prices etc. of Fixed Assets (for land and the house)
The Local Tax Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs Communications conducts the survey to prepare basic materials for the proper and smooth operation of the local tax system. Based on the Local Tax Law, the survey for house has been carried out since 1954, whereas the survey for land has been conducted since 1955.
The topics of the survey for land include the category of land, the number of pieces of land, land register, definitive value, and base value for taxation. As for the house, they include a type of house, structure, the number of buildings, floor space, definitive price, assessed value for taxation and the year built.
Survey of Incorporated Land (Fundamental Statistics)
The first survey was conducted as an approved survey in 1993 under the name of "Corporations Survey in the Basic Land Survey." Its purpose is twofold: first, to have a good grip on the ownership and use of land owned by corporations and supply relevant statistics and, second, to develop systematic information on land towards enhancing effective use of land. In 1998, the name of the survey was changed to the present name. The present survey has been conducted in a cycle of five years.
The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport conducts the survey. Questionnaires A and B are used in the survey. The survey topics include the attributes of corporation, whether it owns land, the address, type, form, area, acquisition date of the land, how it is used and the number of pieces of land owned.
Survey on Land Acquisition by Enterprises
This survey is conducted for the following purposes. The first is to grasp the acquisition, ownership and usage of land by corporation to provide relevant statistics. The second is to use the statistics as basic materials for land policies. In 1972, a survey was started for corporations listed in the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Since 1973, the population of the survey is all private corporations with a capital of 100 million yen or more.
The survey is conducted by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. The survey topics include the attributes of corporation, descriptions on land ownership, land transactions, how the land is used and a future plan for its use.
Corporations Survey on Buildings
The purpose of the survey is twofold. The first purpose is to illuminate issues concerning the title to building and floor space owned by corporation. The second is to provide basic data on how land is used in Japan so that it can be used for the formulation of land policies by compiling its findings together with the results of the Basic Land Survey. Since 1993, the survey has been conducted as a survey attached to the Corporations Survey on Land (Designated Statistics No. 121).
The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport conducts the survey. The survey topics include whether or not a corporation owns a building(s), number of buildings, aggregate floor space, structure, the year built and how each building is used.
Housing and Land Survey (Fundamental Statistics)
Refer to Chapter 21 Housing.
Survey of the Area of Land Prepared for House Construction
This survey is designed to explore an area of land that has been improved for constructing houses during one year, whereby it is expected to illuminate the quantity of land supply for housing. At the same time, the statistics are used as basic materials for the administration of housing and land for housing. Since 1969, it has been carried out together with the "Statistical Survey on Construction (Designated Statistics No.84)."
The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport is responsible for the survey. The survey topics include the category of person who has placed an order, type of land for housing, place of the land, number of preparation work and an area of each piece of land ready for construction.
Annual Report of Statistics on Civil Cases, Legal Procedures and Human Rights
The prototype of this report is the "First Annual Report of Registration Statistics of 1887 by the Ministry of Justice of Japan" published in 1888 which summarized the cases accepted at registration offices all over Japan subsequent to the enactment of the Registry Act in 1887. Thereafter, statistics on legal procedures, protection of human rights, family registration and deposition were added to the report. In 1973, the name was changed to the "Annual Report of Statistics on Civil Cases, Legal Procedures and Human Affairs." Currently, it is issued in two volumes - Annual Report of Statistics on Civil Cases, Legal Procedures and Human Affairs - I" and "Annual Report of Statistics on Civil Cases, Legal Procedures and Human Affairs - II."
The Ministry of Justice conducts a survey using a questionnaire on real estate registration and a questionnaire for commercial and corporate registration. The survey topics include the number of cases by type of registration concerning land, buildings, standing trees, ships, foundations, chattel mortgage and construction machinery. They also include the number of cases by type of registration concerning the company, juridical person, trade name, minority and conservator as well as registration and license tax.
National Survey of Trends in Apartment Markets
A survey on the trends in the market of private apartment houses was started in 1967 as the "Census of Reinforced Concrete Multistory Apartment Houses," which was targeted at high-rise apartment buildings in Tokyo proper. Subsequently, it was continued as the "Census of High-rise Apartment Buildings in the Metropolitan Areas" by the Japan Association of High-rise Apartment Houses. In 1971, the Japan Real Estate Institute began a monthly survey on trends in high-rise apartment houses in the metropolitan area. In 1973, the survey was expanded as a nation-wide survey (annual). Since 1991, the survey has been conducted in the Kinki Areas and the Chugoku and Shikoku Region every month as well.
Data are collected directly from developers who supply high-rise apartment buildings. The developers are purposively selected from the entire nation.
Summary of Factual Surveys on Buildings
The Japan Federation of Building Associations has been carrying out the survey every month since 1965 in order to collect as much data as possible concerning buildings and to provide relevant statistics on buildings.
Data are obtained through questionnaire distributed to every member of the Federation. The survey topics include characteristics of building, age of building, conditions of a building site, facilities, usage of building, area of unoccupied rooms, floor space per person, form of collecting money and lease conditions.
Land Price Publication
The Land Value Assessment Commission of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport publicly announces land prices every year since 1970 based on the Land Price Publication Law. Its purpose is threefold. First, it provides indicators for general transactions of land. Second, through publicly disclosing the prices of the standard pieces of land, its information functions as a yardstick for computing the acquisition price of land for public works and assessing the inheritance tax and fixed asset tax of land. Third, its findings are used as basic data in formulating land policies.
Prefectural Land Price Survey
The survey is designed to evaluate the base prices of the standard pieces of land in each prefecture. It has been annually conducted since 1975 based on the National Land Utilization Plan Law Enforcement Ordinance in order to provide indicators for general transactions of land together with the land prices publicly announced by the government.
Price Index of Urban Land for the Entire Nation
The former Japan Kangyo Bank started publishing the price index in 1936. In 1959, the Japan Real Estate Institute took over the project. Its purpose is to have accurate comprehension of average fluctuations in the prices of land for housing in main cities and announce such prices in index, thereby providing long-term time-series nation-wide information on land prices.
The index is based on the normal land prices of commercial areas, residential areas and industrial areas in urban districts.
Survey of Field Prices and Farm Rent
The former Japan Kangyo Bank conducted the survey on field prices since 1913 and the survey on farm rent since 1921. In March 1959, the Japan Real Estate Institute took over the survey. Its purpose is to have a good grip on national trends in field prices all over Japan, thereby improving and providing information concerning field prices and farm rent.
The topics of the survey include field price, base value for fixed asset tax, real expenditure, standard farm rent and reasons for an increase/decrease in the field price and farm rent.
Survey of the Prices of Forestland and Standing Trees
The purposes of the survey are to grasp trends in the price of forestland including tree, and the prices of standing trees on the forestland so as to provide the correct information concerning forestry. The former Japan Kangyo Bank began the survey in 1940 concerning forestland with tree and in 1946 concerning standing trees. In March 1959, the Japan Real Estate Institute took over the survey.
The topics of the survey include the price of forestland with tree, base value for fixed asset tax, species of trees, prices of standing trees, species of standing trees and reasons for an increase/decrease in the prices of forestland with tree and standing trees.
National Survey of Rentals
The survey is conducted to obtain data on the rentals of offices and apartment houses in the entire nation and to compile indexes. The index provide information on rentals in the whole nation. At the same time, they are used as basic materials for facilitating the effective use of land and the securitization of real estates. The Japan Real Estate Institute began this survey in 1996.
The survey is designed to explore optimally evaluated rentals.
National Construction Cost Index of Wooden Buildings
Refer to Chapter 9 Construction.