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Chapter 11 Information and Communication
This chapter contains statistics within the framework of "H - Information and Communication" in the Standard Industrial Classification of Japan (Rev.11, March 2002). Statistics concerning "41 - Video, sound and text information production business" are included in "Chapter 26 Culture and Leisure." Statistics on the time of broadcasting concerning "38 Broadcasting businesses" are included in the same chapter.
1. Postal services
The origin of postal service may be traced back to the seventh century. A modern postal service was rapidly developed during the Meiji Period (1867 - 1911). The Japanese government promulgated the postal regulations and penal clauses in 1874. Japan joined the Universal Postal Union in 1877. In 1886, the Japanese government established the Ministry of Communications. During the ensuing years, postal service was gradually developed to cover the entire nation. In parallel with the development of the system, statistics on postal service have been continuously compiled since 1871 when a modern postal service was started.
After the end of World War II (1945), the postal service had been placed under the control of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications for many years. The Ministry collected data and compiled statistics concerning postal service under the Regulation on the Survey Reports.
In 2001, with the reorganization of the central ministries and agencies, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications was established by integrating the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, the Ministry of Home Affairs and the Management and Coordination Agency. At the same time, the Postal Service Agency was instituted to carry on postal service. Subsequently, in 2003 the Postal Service Agency was reorganized into the Japan Post Corporation based on the Japan Post Corporation Law.
Currently, statistics on postal services have been continually compiled as statistics derived from administrative records collected on the basis of the Article 7 in the Regulation on the Japan Posts Corporation Reports.
2. Information and telecommunication
The Ministry of Communications was established in 1885. In 1889, the Ministry issued the Communications Statistics, in which the Ministry compiled and published statistics on postal and communication projects since its establishment. The report was superseded by the Yearbook on Postal Statistics, the Yearbook on Telecommunications (Ministry of Telecommunications) and the Yearbook on Telegraph and Telephone (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation). The statistics on international communications was in the Annual Report on International Telegraph and Telephone issued by the Kokusai Denshin Denwa Inc. (KDD) until 1983.
Subsequently, the system of telegraph and telephone business changed drastically due to rapid technological progress and administrative reform in the fields of information and telecommunications. The Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation were privatized in 1985 as Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Incorporated (NTT). In 1999, NTT was reorganized, thereby establishing five companies - NTT East Corporation, NTT West Corporation, NTT Communications Inc., NTT DoCoMo Inc. and NTT Data Inc. under Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Inc. (holding company). On the other hand, the international telecommunications business grew substantially larger as well, and KDD came into the domestic market, and changed its name to KDD International Incorporated. Furthermore, a number of enterprises have been entering the field of telecommunications subsequent to the enactment of the Telecommunications Business Law, thereby causing a very different turn in this field from former days when there were only NTT and KDD in the market.
Under such circumstances, the contents of information and telecommunications have radically changed as well. Together with such a change, it has become difficult to compile statistics from data collected within the conventional framework, which necessitates compiling statistics in a new system of data in the field of information and telecommunications. At present, the aforementioned yearbooks and annual reports are no longer published. Instead, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications compiles statistics based on the data collected from enterprises and publishes statistics as database on information and telecommunications. They are disclosed on their homepage.
Communications Usage Trend Survey
The Ministry of Posts and Communications (currently the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) conducted the survey in 1990 on the usage of various services such as telecommunications and broadcasting and trends from the viewpoint of users. Its primary purpose is to obtain basic materials to be used for the formulation and evaluation of administrative measures in information and telecommunications. The survey was integrated with the telecommunication network survey, which had been implemented every five years since 1993, and the new combined survey was conducted in 1997.
The survey targets households and establishments. It uses three types of questionnaires - a questionnaire for the household in the survey of the trend of telecommunications use, a questionnaire for the establishment and a questionnaire for the enterprise.
3. Information service
The history of statistics on information service is still short, but in parallel with the expansion of the field, relevant statistics have been gradually developed and improved. However, they have not yet fully developed in some aspects. The statistics contained here are limited only to part of the information service.
Survey of Selected Service Industries (Fundamental Statistics)
This survey has been carried out every three years concerning 20 industrial categories in the service industry. Statistics in this section cover the following dimensions of the information service industry.
Enterprises (or establishments) are selected from registers of companies or groups that are categorized under the "Computer programming and other software services" and "Data processing and information services" in the Japan Standard Industrial Classification. The topics of the survey include managerial organization, capital, number of employees, annual sales amount, and ratio of the annual sales by type of business and the acquisition cost of tangible fixed assets for business expenses and business.
Examination for Information-Technology Engineers
The Ministry of International Trade and Industry (currently the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) started the "Information-Technology Engineers Testing System" chiefly aiming to the development of programmers in 1971 as measures to cope with the scarcity of programmers and a rapid increase in future demand for good programmers. In 1970 the testing system was legally supported with the enactment of the "Law concerning the Information-technology Promotion Agency and etc." The scope of the test was gradually expanded. In 1984, based on the Law, the Information-technology Promotion Agency Japan was founded as a testing organization designated by the Minister of International Trade and Industry. In response to this move, the Japan Information-technology Engineers Examination Center was established.