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Chapter 8 Mining and Manufacturing
This chapter contains statistics on basic structure of mining and manufacturing, such as the number of establishments, the number of employees and the sum of production, statistics on commodities such as output and sales amount, statistics on supply-demand and trade such as export/import, and shipment, and other statistics including mining districts, ore reserves and machinery orders.
Statistical Survey of Estimated Mining Amount (Designated Statistics No. 40)
The survey became a designated statistical survey in 1950 and was conducted four times during the period from 1951 to 1955. It was divided into Survey A and Survey B in 1956 according to the type of mineral. Subsequently, each survey was implemented every two years. In 1963 it was further divided into Survey A, Survey B and Survey C, which have been carried out every two years since 1964, every four years since 1963 and every four years since 1965 respectively.
In this survey, the mining right holder and the contract miner are requested to submit a report for each mine lot licensed under the provisions of the Enforcement Regulations of the Mining Law.
Survey of Mining Trends in Japan
This survey has a long history. It dates back to 1905 when the "Mining Law" was enacted, which legally mandated "detailed tables of the mining" for each mine. The survey was expanded and enhanced in terms of its scope in subsequent years. After the end of World War II , the survey was continued as the "Detailed Tables of Mining." In 1952 when it became an approved statistical survey, the survey was renewed as the "Survey of Mining Trends."
The survey covers mining departments of establishments categorized under the major group of "mining" in the industrial classification and engaged in ore mining, oil mining, gas mining or ore dressing (in coal mining).
Census of Manufacturers (Designated Statistics No. 10)
The "Statistical Report of Factories" of 1909 is the prototype of an independent survey using an individual survey questionnaire concerning the manufacturing industry. It was conducted every five years and surveyed factories with five or more employees. In 1920, it was changed to an annual survey. In 1939, it was further transformed as the "Census of Factories" in which all factories and workshops were enumerated.
Since 1948, it has been conducted to collect data and compile basic industrial statistics on the manufacturing industry. Thereafter, the survey scope was expanded and the survey topics were increased. In 2002, establishments of specified industries with one to three workers were eliminated.
In this Census, the "Questionnaire A" is used for an establishments with 30 or more workers, whereas the "Questionnaire B" is used for an establishments with 29 workers or less.
Current Survey of Production (Designated Statistics No. 11)
The survey was started in November 1947. The number of industrial categories specified for the initial survey was limited to six groups among the two-digit categories of the industrial classification such as metal mining. Subsequently, the coverage of specified industries was gradually expanded through absorbing statistics compiled by private industrial association. In 1953, the basis of the survey was changed from specified industries to specified commodities. In 1973, it underwent substantial revision such as eliminating small-scale establishments from the survey.
It covers approximately two thousands items selected from all commodities produced in the mining and manufacturing industries. The survey topics include the output, shipment and inventory of mineral products and manufactured products, related raw materials, employees, machinery and equipment. The survey is conducted at selected establishments or enterprises that produce (or process) these products.
Survey on Shipbuilding and Engineering (Designated Statistics No. 29)
In 1896, the Japanese government stipulated the Shipbuilding Regulations. In response to its enforcement, data were collected and compiled based on reports from each shipyard concerning the start of work, launching and completion. Since April 1950, the survey has been conducted as a designated statistical survey based on the Statistics Law to monitor the shipbuilding and the manufacturing of marine engines and products.
In the survey, two types of questionnaires are used. The questionnaire for shipbuilding is for all plants equipped with manufacturing equipment to build or repair a ship of 20 gross tons or more or of a length of 15 meters or more. The questionnaire for marine engineering is used for the plant that regularly employs ten or more employees to manufacture or repair marine industrial products such as steam turbines.
Survey on Current Rolling Stock Production (Designated Statistics No. 71)
In earlier days, the Japanese Association of Rolling Stock Industries collected data from rolling stock manufacturers that had membership in the association concerning every stage from receiving an order to production, electricity used and labour in order to compile statistical information. In April 1954 the survey was placed under the control of the Ministry of Transportation (currently the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport) as a part of the current production statistics which was a designated statistics based on the Statistics Law. At the same time, the survey included the components of rolling stock and the signaling and safety equipments as well as rolling stock. Subsequently, equipments for cable railway carriers were added in 1964 as a survey items, thereby establishing the present form of survey.
Statistics of Production by Pharmaceutical Industry (Designated Statistics No. 48)
This is a survey to shed light on the production of drugs, peripheral medical products and medical instruments. It became a designated statistical survey in 1952.
Survey of Food-related Commodities
The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and the Food Agency conduct surveys on specified commodities as designated and approved statistical surveys. For other commodities, statistical data are collected and published by the industrial association of respective commodities. As for alcoholic drinks, available are statistics derived from administrative records and compiled by the National Tax Administration Agency and statistics prepared by the industrial associations of each type of liquor.
The Food Marketing Research and Information Center carries out a survey to supplement the statistics obtained by the above surveys and compiles the "General survey for policy promotion in the food industry."
Survey on Milk and Dairy Products (Designated Statistics No. 33)
It was started in 1950 as a livestock product survey that was carried out monthly and quarterly. The survey was renamed to the present title in 1971. It covers milk processing plants and dairy product plants. Since 1971, it is composed of an annual census, and monthly sample surveys.
Current Production Survey on Processed Food
The survey focuses on the following commodities to monitor current production by collecting data from enterprises that are selected from the list of manufacturers of each food commodity. The commodities include vinegar, sauces, curry, soup, mustard, spice, regular coffee, coffee drinks, mineral water and chocolate/cocoa.
Statistics on Current Production of Processed Food (rice, and wheat )
This survey was started in 1966 to monitor the current production of processed rice, wheat and barley products. It covers establishments selected from the list of manufacturing plants of each commodity. The survey is designed to explore the output of each commodity once a month, and equipment, labour, sum of raw materials used, quantity sold to each customer and total annual sales once a year.
Current Supply-demand Survey and distribution survey of various products
The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry conducts various current supply-demand surveys and distribution surveys concerning industrial products. Each survey was started at the latest by the mid-1950s. The current supply-demand survey is different from the distribution survey in that the latter focuses only upon the phase of distribution, whereas the former explores some aspects of producers and consumers as well as the phase of distribution.
Textile Distribution Survey
This survey was started in 1948 as the "Survey of Distribution of Textile Goods." It was the first survey of supply-demand and distribution in the field of the textile industry conducted by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry (currently, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry). In 1953 its name was changed to the "Textile Distribution Survey." The category of textile materials, for which irregular surveys had been conducted in former days, was incorporated into the new survey.
There are three survey questionnaires: monthly report on fiber materials, monthly report on yarns and monthly report on textiles. Each survey covers wholesalers of each product.
Current Statistical Survey of Supply and Demand for Iron and Steel
The survey has been conducted since 1948. Initially, it was designed to look into the outgoes of four steel commodities; hot-rolled steel, cold-rolled steel, plated steel and steel pipe. Special steel was added as a survey item in 1975.
Three kinds of survey questionnaires are used - a monthly report on the supply-demand of steel (for the plants of producers), a monthly report on the supply-demand of steel (for the headquarters and offices of producers and distributors) and a monthly report on the supply-demand of special steel materials.
Survey on New Orders for Machinery
The Economic Planning Agency (currently the Cabinet Office) has been conducting this survey since April 1953 on a monthly basis in cooperation with main machine manufacturers. In the beginning, it targeted seventy-one companies. It gradually expanded through subsequent revisions. Since 1969, 178 enterprises have been surveyed. In the survey conducted in April 1987, the number of enterprises was increased and the scope was expanded in order to have a more accurate understanding of trends in equipment investment, which reflected structural reform in the industry.
There are two survey questionnaires - "Questionnaire of Machinery Orders" as a monthly survey and "Questionnaire of Prospect Machinery Orders" as a quarterly survey. Nine categories of machine are surveyed: prime mover, heavy electric machinery, electronic/communication equipment, industrial machinery, machine tools, rolling stocks, vehicles, airplanes and ships. They are further classified into 22 groups.
Index of Industrial Production, Shipment, Inventory and Inventory Ratio
In 1950, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (currently, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) released the first production index as the "mining and manufacturing industrial index estimated by the MITI (1946 as base year)." The index were based only upon the commodities surveyed under the current production survey conducted by the Ministry. Afterwards, the Ministry increased the number of commodities and included food products, lumber and ships when it revised the indexes with 1950 as the base year, thereby enabling it to be comprehensive index. And, when the base year was changed to 1955, the MITI published connected indexes retroactive to pre-war days.
It covers 521 commodities for the production and shipment index, 375 commodities for the inventory index and 349 commodities for the inventory ratio.
index of Production Capacity and index of Operating Rate
The first index numbers of production capacity and operating rate were compiled in 1956 for the manufacturing industry. March 1950 was used as the base time against which index were calculated until September 1957. Subsequently, the base year has been revised every five years.
The index are for the manufacturing industry and for its subgroups based on 175 items.