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Chapter 7 Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
This chapter covers agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Statistics in this area are divided into:  statistics on basic structure,  statistics on production and  statistics on the management of business units. Some derived statistics are compiled on the basis of such primary statistics.
Surveys on basic structure
Census of Agriculture and Forestry (Designated Statistics No.26)
The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (currently the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) took part in the world census of agriculture in 1950 in response to the recommendations of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Since then, the world census has been carried out every ten years, whereas its counterpart of Japan has been conducted every five years. In 1960, the census of forestry was added, thereby calling it the census of agriculture and forestry.
Japan's first complete enumeration of agriculture dates back to the "Simultaneous Survey of Farm Households" conducted in 1938. Subsequently, several surveys have been carried out on farm households and farmland. Since 1950, the Census of Agriculture and forestry has been implemented every five years.
The structure and content of the survey are as follows.
Survey of Farm Households:
The scope of the survey covers the number of farm households, the population of farm households, people engaged in agriculture, the area of cultivated land under management, the acreage of crops, the number of livestock and capital equipment such as agricultural machines.
Survey of Agricultural Establishments Except Farm Households:
The survey topics includes classification by type of management and the purpose of management, in addition to the topics for the farm households.
Survey of Agricultural Service Establishments:
This survey covers establishments that provides the service of agricultural work on commission to agricultural establishments, and survey topics are revenues from service fees, the number of operators and the volume of service work.
Survey of Agricultural Village:
Survey topics are the number of households, land and living environment of a village.
Survey of Forestry Households:
The scope of the survey covers the number of forestry households, the number of household members engaged in forestry, the number of workers exclusively engaged in forestry and an area of holding.
Survey of Forestry Establishments except for Forestry Households:
This survey is almost same as the survey of forestry households.
Survey of Forestry Service Establishments etc.:
The survey covers establishments that provide services in a forestation or log production on commission and establishments that purchase standing trees to produce logs. The scope of the survey covers the number of establishments classified by type of management, the number of establishments by main business and an area of forest where each business activity has been conducted.
Survey of Forestry Regions:
Survey topics are an area of land, an area of land used for forestry, areas classified by tree species and by age group of trees in privately owned forests, and the activities of forestry organizations.
A farm household is defined as an agricultural establishment that is a household and owns an area of 10 ares or more of cultivated land under its management. However, a household that owns cultivated land with an area of less than 10 ares but earns 150 thousand yen or more from the sales of agricultural products is included in the category of farm households ("extra-regulation farm household").
Fisheries Census (Designated Statistics No.67)
The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (currently the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) conducted the first fisheries census in 1949. It conducted the second census in 1953 and the "Special Survey of Coastal Fisheries" in 1958. Subsequently, it took the third census in 1963, since which time it has conducted the census every five years.
The census is constituted of the "Basic Survey of Marine Fisheries," the "Survey of Fishing Areas" and the "Survey of Freshwater Fisheries."
Basic Survey of Marine Fisheries:
The survey primarily focuses on fishery operating units (the type of management, the tonnage of fishing vessels and the type of fisheries) and the number of persons engaged in fisheries.
Surveys of Fishing Areas:
This survey is composed of five surveys - general survey of fishing areas, survey of organizations of fisheries management, survey of distribution organizations of marine products, survey of freezing and refrigerating plants, and survey of marine product processing plants.
Survey of Freshwater Fisheries:
The scope of the survey covers the number of establishments and the number of employees.
Surveys on production factors, products and prices
Survey of Cultivate Land and Planted Acreage
This survey is designed to examine how cultivated land and other types of land, which are the foundation of agricultural production, are used. Its prototype is the survey on the "Area of Registered Land" conducted in 1868. The surveys were interrupted due to the Second World War. Although the survey was resumed after the end of the War (1945), its accuracy was not satisfactory.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (currently the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) carried out a full-scale sample survey in 1956. In this survey, sample land was actually measured. This measuring survey has been developed into the present form of the survey. In recent years, administrative organizations collect more information through various means including field surveys and aerial photography to supplement and complement the above data.
The survey is conducted in the following manners:
Area of cultivated land:
The expansion and dilapidation of cultivated land are classified by reason.
A land measuring survey is conducted for paddy rice, whereas an interview survey and field survey are done for other crops.
An area of land where no crops are sowed or planted as of the date of the survey
Crop Survey (Designated Statistics No.37)
Present data may be retroactively connected to the data for 1878.
Planted acreage is obtained by the "Survey of Cultivated Land and Planted Acreage." Hence, the scope of this survey covers the yield per unit area, gross weight of a crop and damage on agricultural products.
In this survey, the yield per unit area is estimated from the results of actually measuring the standard lot and sample lot or specific lot out of the unit area and the results of field surveys. The estimated yield per unit area is multiplied by planted acreage to obtain harvest yield.
Vegetable production and shipment statistics
Fruit production and shipment statistics
In former days, data concerning both vegetables and fruits were collected under the crop survey by interview as a tabular survey. Then, the survey method was changed into field observation by enumerations. During the period from the late 1950s to the early 1960s, the number of survey crops was increased and the survey method was improved. In 1971 the "Survey of Harvest Yield of Horticultural/Agricultural Products" and the "Survey of Vegetable and Fruit Shipment" were combined into the "Survey of Vegetable and Fruit Production and Shipment." In 1973, vegetables and fruits were separated, thereby creating the present two surveys.
The topics of the survey include the acreage (acreage under cultivation for fruits), yields and shipments of vegetables and fruits.
Basic Survey and Forecast Survey of Livestock
A survey on the number of livestock was started during the Meiji Period (1868-1911). And since the late Taisho Period (1911-1925), a survey had been conducted on the number of livestock and the number of livestock raising households. However, these surveys were conducted in a tabular survey.
The "Livestock Census" was carried out as a complete enumeration of domestic livestock as of February 1, 1949. In 1950, a census of livestock was taken as a part of the census of agriculture. Since 1951, a survey of livestock was conducted in the "Current Agricultural Survey." In 1955, it was switched over to the "Livestock Basic Survey," which was then integrated into the "Current Agricultural Survey" in 1960. Since 1970, it has been carried out as the "Basic and Forecast Survey of Livestock."
The topics of the survey include the number of livestock, the number of persons engaged in the livestock industry and an area of cultivated land under management. The scope of the forecast survey covers the number of livestock by age (month) and the number of babies born.
Survey on Milk and Dairy Products (Designated Statistics No.33)
Survey of Hen Eggs Marketing
Survey of Poultry Meat Marketing
Survey of Meat Marketing
Products of the livestock industry are limited to raw milk, hen eggs and livestock in a strict definition of the term. That is, they should not include dairy products or meat. In 1950, the "Survey of Livestock Products" was conducted to investigate milk and hen eggs. In 1971, hen eggs and milk/dairy products were separated.
With respect to the statistics on meat, only statistics derived from administrative records at "slaughterhouses," compiled by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, had been available. It was in 1964 when the "Survey of Meat Marketing" was started to compile relevant statistics.
All these surveys are targeted at manufacturing establishments of respective products. In the three "marketing" surveys except for the milk and dairy product survey, market prices are taken as well.
Statistics on milk/dairy products and the marketing of meat contain information on places of production of raw materials (for raw milk and livestock) and manufacturing establishments of products (for milk/dairy products and meat) by prefecture. Hence, it is possible to see from these statistics how raw materials are transported among prefectures.
The "Survey of Hen Eggs Marketing," the "Survey of Poultry Meat Marketing," and the "Survey of Meat Marketing" were consolidated to form the "Survey of Livestock Marketing" in 2002.
Agricultural Product Price Survey
The prices of agricultural products have been surveyed since 1948 as the "Survey of Commodity Price Index in Rural Areas." At the same time, the survey was designed to explore the prices of agricultural product materials and living materials. The survey results were released monthly. They were also converted into index, which were also released monthly as "Commodity Price Index in Rural Areas." However, in 2001, the survey was redesigned into the "Agricultural Product Price Survey." This revision put an end to computing the price index of living materials.
The survey is conducted to illuminate supply and demand in timbers, trends in timber-related industries, the price level of timbers and fluctuations in the price level. The topics of the survey include the output of materials, the quantities and prices of timbers, and sawn wood distributed. It is a sample survey (in part, complete enumeration) of sawmills. The surveys results concerning supply and demand and prices are released monthly.
The survey does not include statistics on the output of "special forest products" such as mushrooms. Such statistics come from the Forestry Agency in the form of a tabular survey.
Survey of Marine Production (Designated Statistics No.54)
Survey of Freshwater Fisheries Production
The output (fish catch) and sales of fisheries are explored under the following surveys: the "Survey of Marine Fisheries Production" focuses on marine fisheries and marine aquaculture, whereas the "Survey of Freshwater Fisheries Production" focuses on freshwater fisheries and freshwater aquiculture. The findings of both surveys are compiled as statistics in the "Annual Report of Fisheries and Aquaculture Production."
The output (sales) is computed by multiplying the output (catch) of fish species and the market price of each fish at a point of production.
Production index of agriculture, forestry and fisheries
The production index of agriculture was computed prior to World War II . However, a comparable index originates in the index for 1950 published in 1952.
The production of commodities produced in agriculture, forestry and fisheries are processed into index by the Laspeyres' formula in which the yield is taken as weight. Regional indexes are published as well as the national index.
Surveys on management
Survey Research of Farm Economy (Designated Statistics No.119)
Surveys were conducted in prewar days to investigate the management and income/expenditure of farm households and the production costs of agricultural products. Surveys based on the sampling theory had been conducted since 1949 as "Agricultural Economy Survey," "Survey of Production Costs of Agricultural Products" and "Survey of Production Costs of Livestock Products." These three surveys were integrated into the "Survey of Farm Management" in 1994. Data are collected from the same households for compiling statistics on trends in farm management, statistics by type of farm management and statistics on the production costs of agricultural and livestock products. The contents of each statistics are as follows.
Statistics of Trends in Farm Management:
The scope of the statistics covers farm management and family income and expenditure.
Statistics by Type of Farm Management :
The statistics focus on the income/expenditure by main crops in farm management.
Statistics of Production Costs of Agricultural and Livestock Products:
It is designed to explore expenses for production materials such as fertilizers, agricultural chemicals and stock feed, fixed capital such as agricultural machinery, barns and greenhouses, depreciation expenses and labour costs.
Survey of Forestry Households
The survey has been conducted since 1963. Since 1992, it covers forestry households that own an area of 20 or more hectares and less than 500 hectares of forest.
The topics of the survey include an area of forest under management, finance and invested workforce. In addition, the "Survey on Management of Forestry Organizations" is also carried out to explore the managing bodies of forestry organizations.
In 2002, the "Survey of Forestry Households" was consolidated with the "Survey of Managerial Trend of Farm and Forestry Households" together with a survey on mushroom growers to form the "Survey of Forestry Management".
Survey of Fisheries Management
With respect to the fisheries management, the "Survey of Fisheries Household Economy," the "Survey of Small and Medium-scale Fisheries Establishments" and the "Survey of Large-scale Fisheries Companies" were conducted until the year 2000.
In the year 2001, they were reorganized into the "Survey of Fisheries Management" to investigate four types of management: family-type, employment-type, corporate-type and joint management type. The topics of the survey include finance, invested labour hours and invested capital including fishing vessels.
Statistics on supply and demand
Food Supply-Demand Table
The statistics in the table are compiled in compliance with the manual of the UN Food and Agricultural Organization. The table lists the total quantities of foods supplied in Japan for every stage from production to final consumption. The oldest one is traceable to the table issued for the period of five years from 1911 to 1915. Data are consecutively available for every year up to now excluding a few years towards the end of World War II (1945).
In order to draw up the table, it is necessary to use statistics on output by commodity for domestic production, trade statistics on export and import, and increases or decreases in inventories. Furthermore, statistics derived from administrative records prepared by the departments/bureaus of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries are used to estimate the volume of food crops directed to other uses than food such as stock feed.
The daily nutrition supply per person is computed by multiplying the net supply of food (the weight of edible parts excluding bones and skins) and unit nutrition listed on the "Standard Table of Food Composition in Japan."
Food self-sufficiency rate is computed for each commodity and each classification category as well as composite self-sufficiency rate.
Surveys concerning macro-economy
Economic accounts of industries related to agriculture and food
The economic accounts are compiled to illuminate the relationship between economic activities of industries related to food supply and national economy. The "Social Accounts of Agriculture and Farm Households" began to be prepared in FY1952. In 1986, the system was revised to include industries related to other foods than agricultural foods.
To compile economic accounts of related industries, the same method is adopted as is used for the Input/Output Table. However, these accounts are only for domestic output and gross domestic product without intermediate input.
The accounts cover the field of agriculture in more details. That is, they contain the account statement of production and expenditure, the breakdown of domestic output, intermediate input (invested materials in value terms) and total capital formation both in nominal and real values.
Statistics of earnings from agricultural production
In the statistics, yields in agriculture and net income from agriculture are estimated for the whole nation. The contents of the statistics are very similar to the agricultural section of the above economic accounts.
The concept underlying the net income from agriculture is almost same as the concept of gross net production in economic accounts. That is, it is obtained by deducting the amount of intermediate input, consumption of fixed capital and indirect taxes from gross yields in agriculture and adding current subsidies.