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Chapter 1 Land and Climate

  This chapter covers land and climate. The section of land contains statistics on the area of the national land by prefecture. It also contains statistics on the major islands, lakes, mountains and rivers. Refer to "Chapter 5 Public Finance" for the area of state-owned land, "Chapter 7 Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries" for the area of cultivated land and forests, "Chapter 15 Real Estate and Land" for the area of housing and "Chapter 26 Culture and Leisure" for the area of parks.

  The section of climate contains statistics on meteorological elements such as atmospheric pressure, temperature, moisture, sunshine duration and precipitation. Statistics on natural disasters are included in the "Chapter 29 Disasters and Accidents". 

Areas in 1935

  The area of the national land in 1935 is based on the surveys conducted by the Land Survey Department of the General Staff Office of the Army. The source of the data is the "Report on the Areas of Cities, Towns and Villages as of 1935" issued by the Cabinet Bureau of Statistics, which is based on the measurement by the Land Survey Department of the topographical maps drawn on a scale of 1 to 50,000.

  The areas of Minamitori Shima of the Ogasawara Islands and Tori Shima of Shimajiri-gun, Okinawa Prefecture are not included because these two islands had never been officially surveyed.

Areas in 1950

  Data are derived from the website by the Geographical Survey Institute in the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (former Ministry of Construction).The figures measured based on topographical maps drawn on a scale of 1 to 50,000 issued before the Second World War

Areas since 1955

  Data are derived from the "Areas of Prefectures, Cities, Towns and Villages" compiled by the Geographical Survey Institute in the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure , Transport and Tourism (former Ministry of Construction) as of October 1 each year and website.

  The figures from 1955 to 1987 measured based on topographical maps drawn on a scale of 1 to 50,000 issued by the Geographical Survey Institute as of October 1 in 1955.

  The following figures are used for the specific areas listed below.

* The areas of Habomai Islands (101.6 square kilometers), Shikotan Island (255.12 square kilometers), Kunashiri Island (1,500.04 square kilometers) and Etorofu Island (3,139.00 square kilometers) are derived from the "Areas by the Statistics Bureau of the Cabinet Office as of 1935."

* The area of Take Shima (0.23 square kilometers) is derived from the Inventory of National Assets.

* The area of the Ogasawara Islands is the figure measured based on topographical maps drawn on a scale of 1 to 50,000 issued by the Geographical Survey Institute as of October 1 in 1968.

* The area of Io Torishima (2.60 square kilometers) is the figure measured based on topographical map drawn on a scale of 1 to 50,000 of U.S. Army Map Service.

* The area of the Okinawa Islands except Io Torishima is based on the survey results issued by the Statistics Agency of the Ryukyu Government in 1966. (The area was measured in the period from 1919 to 1921 and re-measured by the Land Survey Agency of the Ryukyu Government based upon revised topographical maps drawn on a scale of 1 to 50,000 in the years of 1961 and 1962).

  The figures from 1988 measured based on topographical maps drawn on a scale of 1 to 25,000 issued by by the Geographical Survey Institute as of October 1 in 1988.

  The following figures are used for the specific areas listed below.

* The areas of Habomai Islands, Shikotan Island, Kunashiri Island, Etorofu Island and Take Shima are same as above.

* The areas of Senkaku Islands is the figure measured based on topographical map original drawing issued by by the Geographical Survey Institute as of January 31 in 1989.

* The areas of Habomai Islands, Shikotan Island, Kunashiri Island and Etorofu Island measured based on topographical maps drawn on a scale of 1 to 50,000 issued by the Geographical Survey Institute as of August 1 in 1988 since 1996.

The number of islands constituting the Japanese Archipelago and their surroundings

  Data on the number of islands constituting the Japanese Archipelago and their surroundings stem from the survey conducted by the Maritime Safety Agency in 1986 on islands with a coastline of 0.1 km or more on marine charts based on charts drawn on a scale of 1 to 25,000. Data for the Habomai Islands, Shikotan Island, Kunashiri Island and Etorofu Island are based upon the survey carried out in 1969.

Topography, altitude and gradient

  Statistics on the areas by topography, altitude and gradient are based on the data in the "National land numerical information" by the Geographical Survey Institute. Topography is classified according to the terrain that has the largest area in each standard regional mesh in the Standard Regional Mesh System. As to the altitude, each standard regional mesh is divided into quarters, and the altitude is determined by an elevation of each division. Gradient is the steepest incline among eight directions to the adjacent points of surveying altitude.

Area of land by use

  The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (the former National Land Agency) has been conducting the "Survey on Land for Public Facilities" in each prefecture for land use planning, whereby it is possible to obtain an area of land by the purpose of its use since 1960. The statistics on areas are compiled from various existing data based on the definition used by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport.

Area of private land by use

  The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications compiles the "Summary Report on the Prices of Fixed Assets and etc. (Land)" based the on reports submitted by each prefectural government on fixed assets as of January 1 each year.

  Private land means land that is registered in the land ledger for fixed asset tax under the jurisdiction of the city, town or village office and liable for taxation.

Climate

  Statistics on climate are derived from the "Annual Report on the Meteorological Agency" compiled by the Meteorological Agency based on the weather observations performed at weather stations nationwide.

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